goldfish swim school how to take care of a goldfish
goldfish swim school Undoubtedly the most widely kept of all fish, goldfish exist in a far wider range of colors than their name implies. Goldfish are suitable for both home aquariums and ponds, although the different color forms vary in terms of
their hardiness, and not all are suited to be kept outdoors all year in temperate areas.
Goldfish are members of the carp family, but unlike most fish in this group, they lack any barbels around the mouth. This characteristic allows them to be distinguished at a glance from koi.
Common Goldfish (Carassius auratus) can become tame in both
pond and aquarium surroundings. They may live for more than
40 years—far longer than most other pond and aquarium fish.
This is not only the most popular goldfish variety,
but also the hardest and potentially the largest.
It occurs in a range of colors, but solid
(“self-colored”) fish are usually preferred.
Good specimens display body symmetry,
with even curves on the upper and lower body.
A short, broad caudal peduncle and a wide,
slightly forked caudal fin make common goldfish
strong swimmers.These fish can survive in frozen
ponds for short periods provided the water is
deep enough for them to avoid becoming
trapped in the ice itself.
White Common Goldfish This variety, sometimes called
the Pearl, is less popular than its colored cousin, but it
proves to be equally hardy. goldfish swim school
Common Goldfish These fish vary from yellow through
bright orange to a deep blood-red. In exceptional
circumstances, they may reach over 24 in (60 cm) long.
This elegant variety originated in the United
States during the late 1800s. It is distinguished by
its slim, streamlined body and its deeply forked
caudal fin, which should be longer than the body
when fully extended. Comets are usually
variegated in color; the most popular variety
is the Sarasa, which is easily recognizable by the
deep red-and-white patterning extending over
the body and fins. Comets are active by nature,
and require a spacious aquarium if kept indoors.
They will thrive in pond surroundings, although
they may prove vulnerable to fin congestion
during periods of severe cold weather.
Comet The Comet’s
caudal and dorsal fins
are greatly enlarged.
chocolate body patterning.
PIGMENTATION AND SHEEN
The protective scales on a goldfish form part
of the outer layer of the body known as the
epidermis. Beneath this is a layer called the
dermis, which itself overlies layers of fat and
muscle. Distributed among these layers are the
pigments that give goldfish their vibrant skin
colors. These include reddish-orange and yellow
pigments known as lipochromes,
and melanin, a black pigment. Lipochromes
usually occur in the upper layers, but the
location of the black pigment is more
variable. If melanin is present just below the
scales, the goldfish looks jet black; if located
in the lower layers, the fish looks blue (for
example, the Blue Pom-Pon, bottom right).
When both types of pigment are present in
different layers, this creates chocolate or
coppery shades. A goldfish that completely lacks
pigmentation is silvery in color.
Another factor influencing the appearance
of goldfish is the presence in the dermis of cells
known as iridocytes. These cells are normally
distributed over the entire body, giving goldfish,
such as the Blue Pom-Pon (bottom right), a
shiny appearance. However, the upper iridocytes
are missing in some goldfish varieties. In such
cases, the lower level of cells has a direct effect
ORIGINS AND ANCESTRY
Goldfish are descended from carp that
were kept in China about 1,700 years ago.
The first records of orange-marked carp date
back to AD 300, but it was only from around
AD 800, during the Sung Dynasty, that people
started to breed these colorful cyprinids
for ornamental purposes. Goldfish feature
prominently in oriental literature and many
other forms of art, including ceramics, and
it is possible to track their early development
from such sources. goldfish swim school
Ancestral lines displaying many of the
features seen in today’s varieties, including
telescope-eyes, were well-established by 1600,
as were numerous color variants, including
some with variegated coloring. The different
body shapes and fin types that characterize
many of the modern varieties were also
beginning to emerge by the early 17th century.
Goldfish were imported to Japan in the
16th century, where still more varieties were
bred, but it was to be another 200 years
before they became available in the West.
They soon became highly sought-after, as
the pond fish of first choice for the estates
of the European aristocracy, and were kept
in decorative bowls in grand houses. Rather
surprisingly, they did not reach North America
until 1874. Nevertheless, their popularity grew
so rapidly there that the first commercial
goldfish breeding farm was established in
the United States just 15 years later.
This popular variety is very close in appearance
to the Common Goldfish.This is especially so in
the case of the London Shubunkin, which has an
identical body, and differs only in terms of the
arrangement of its iridocytes.This particular
variety was developed by London breeders during
the 1920s, by which time enthusiasts in the U.S.
had already created the long-tailed American
Shubunkin. In due course, the two varieties
were crossed by breeders of the Bristol Aquarist
Society in western England, creating the Bristol
Shubunkin—a very distinctive and different
form with large, flowing lobes on its caudal fin,
which must not be allowed to droop. Shubunkin
coloration is generally very variable, but the
orange areas tend to be paler than those of
Common Goldfish.They may also display dark
speckling, as well as bluish shades that range from
pale-whitish through to violet. Darkly marked
Shubunkins are highly attractive when seen at
close range, but they are less conspicuous in
ponds unless the water is particularly clear.
American Shubunkin The caudal fin lobes of this variety
are much narrower than those of the Bristol Shubunkin;
they are tapering rather than rounded in shape. goldfish swim school
This ancient Chinese variety can be identified by
its rotund body, double caudal fins, and pearl-like
markings on the sides of its body. Each scale has
a raised whitish center, making it look as if a pearl
is embedded in it.The variegated red-and-white
form is the most common Pearlscale goldfish, but there is a
also nacreous variety (see p.333) that resembles the
Shubunkin in coloration. Pearlscales goldfish are not strong
swimmers, and are usually kept in aquariums
rather than ponds, where their distinctive
appearance is easier
The most obvious feature of this goldfish is the
hump between the dorsal fin and the head.The
body is relatively short and deep, the dorsal fin
is tall, and the elongated caudal fin is divided to
form a double tail. Ryukins are generally brightly
colored, with a deep-red and white coloration
being the preferred form.The markings on
these goldfish should be symmetrical as far as
possible. Chocolate (coppery) individuals are
often recognized as a separate form, the
Tetsuonaga, especially in Japan.Tetsuonagas have
a reputation for both hardiness and the quality
of their fin shape, so they are useful in
Ryukin breeding.The Ryukin is named
after Japan’s Ryukyu Islands, where
the ancestors of this goldfish were
first introduced from China.
Orange-and-White Ryukin Ryukins have either normal
eyes, as shown in this largely orange form, or,
Calico Ryukin Nacreous
not common in double-tailed
goldfish, but is seen
in the Ryukin. Calico
Ryukins often have bold,
This form displays a variegated pattern of orange
and white body markings.The vibrantly colored
areas, which can vary from yellow through to
reddish-orange, should extend around the body
so that the white areas do not predominate. Purewhite
Wakins, which occasionally occur, are not
favored by breeders. Although the reflective
metallic form is the most common, a nacreous
variety (see p.333) also exists.The Wakin has a
body shape similar to the Common Goldfish, but it
can be instantly distinguished by its double caudal
fin.Wakins are lively by nature, and grow rapidly;
fish reared in ponds can reach 8 in (20 cm) in
length by three years of age. goldfish swim school
Descended from Japanese Wakin stock, the Jikin
is often known in the West as the Peacock Tail.The
raised upper lobes of its double caudal fin form
an X-shape when viewed from behind.The
Jikin’s body should be mainly silvery,
with red areas restricted to the fins and
around the lips. However, breeding Jikins
with this desired arrangement of markings
and a well-balanced caudal fin shape always proves
difficult, even when the parent fish are both wellmarked
and from a long-established line.
The matt-black color of the Black Moor is highly
distinctive, as is its corpulent body shape.This
goldfish is a telescope-eye variety, with eyes
extending out from the sides of the head.The
Black Moor is a selective color form of the Veiltail
(see p.339). Although developed in the UK, it
is now kept worldwide.These fish are not very
hardy, and are better suited to an aquarium than
an outdoor pond, especially through the winter
(in temperate areas).Their coloration makes for an
attractive contrast with brightly colored goldfish.
The absence of a dorsal fin is a key feature of the
Lionhead.The result is a smooth back that curves
gently to the double caudal fin, the curvature
accentuated by the fish’s relatively long body. As
Lionheads grow older, they develop a distinctive
hood that covers the entire head area.This usually
starts to become evident at the very top of the
head, and takes several years to develop to its
full extent, when it has a raspberry-like
appearance.The hood is more
developed in this variety than in any
other. Lionheads exist in a wide range
of colors, although solid colors such as
orange are most commonly seen.They do
not thrive at high temperatures, nor are they
hardy in temperate areas.
Blue Lionhead When fully
grown, the hood should cover the
entire head, encircling the eyes.
The head has a wide appearance
when viewed from above.
The dorsal fin on the back of an Oranda allows it
to be distinguished at a glance from other types of
hooded goldfish.The Oranda also has a longer
body shape and is a more powerful swimmer.The
hood, or wen as it is called in Japan, is normally
restricted to the top of the head, extending back
over the eyes. In mature individuals, the area
between the folds of the hood may appear whitish.
Although this can look like a sign of disease, it is
actually an accumulation of the protective mucus
produced by the fish’s body.
The coloration of these goldfish is sometimes
unstable, just as it can be in other hooded
varieties.This is particularly true of blackand-
orange individuals, in which the
orange areas often become more
prominent over time.
Blue Oranda In this
increasingly popular color
variety, the underparts are
usually a lighter shade.
Sporting a hood similar to the Lionhead’s, the
Ranchu is the Japanese counterpart of that ancient
Chinese breed.The Ranchu can be differentiated
from the Lionhead by its shorter, more steeply
curved body. As with Lionheads, not all Ranchus
display smooth body curvature from head to tail,
and an individual with slight humps along its back
is considered to be seriously flawed.The double
caudal fin may be only partially divided. In Ranchus
of the highest quality, the top edge of the caudal
fin should ideally form an angle of 90 degrees with
the caudal peduncle. Ranchus, which are also
known as Buffaloheads, are the most popular
Japanese goldfish. Four principal founding lines
are recognized, each of which is named after its
creator.The dominant variety is the Ishikawa
lineage; the others are Sakuri, Uno, and Takahashi.
All these forms display a hood, but some lesscommon
varieties lack this feature.They include
the Osaka Ranchu, named after its city of origin,
which also has a more rounded body. Another
hoodless variety is the Nankin Ranchu, from the
Shimane area of Japan, a silvery-white fish with red
gill covers, lips, and fins. In addition, there is the
rare Nacreous Ranchu, also called the Edonishiki,
in which the hood is poorly developed.
Red-and-White Ranchu A mature individual with hood
growth on the side of the face is described as okame (the
name of a Japanese theatrical mask indicating a fat girl).
Red Ranchu All the Ranchu’s fins are relatively short; the
caudal fin is carried high. The hood has yet to develop in
the young specimen shown above.
The elegant fins of the Veiltail are easily damaged,
so this goldfish should be housed in a spacious
aquarium—free from obstructions such as large
rocks—rather than in a pond.The long caudal
fin of the Veiltail is fully divided, so that it hangs
down in folds.The dorsal fin is tall, and in a
well-proportioned Veiltail it should match
the height of the body.The overall body
shape of this variety is rounded rather
The anal fin is paired and relatively long, and
tends to flow vertically when the fish is swimming.
In addition to individuals with normal eyes,
telescope-eye examples of this variety are not
uncommon.The breed was developed from
Ryukin stock by American breeders around
Philadelphia in the late 1800s
Celestial goldfish names
Actual video of celestial eye golfish
Selective breeding of the goldfish has brought
into being numerous variations in eye shape.The
Celestial has eyes that protrude very obviously.
They are not on the sides of the head, as in most
goldfish, but rather in a semihorizontal plane so
that they point upward, as if toward the stars
(hence the name).The fry hatch with a normal
eye arrangement, but the eyes rotate and shift
position soon afterward.The bodies of these
goldfish are relatively elongated, and they have
slightly curved backs, with no dorsal fins. Both
metallic and nacreous forms of the Celestial exist.
Reference from Encyclopedia of Aquarium and Pond fish D Alderton DK 208