Posted on

how to build a koi pond for breeding

koi pond construction guide

how to build a koi pond If you are planning to breed koi fish , then you must start out on the right foot.

You cannot simply find someone who is selling koi, bring a few
back home with you, then toss them into a five-gallons of water
bucket and expect them to thrive in this “new home”.

Koi are hardy, but this treatment would certainly not be good for any fish, much less the Koi.

These fish have the potential to be very time consuming, but you
can curtail this somewhat by doing your homework before even purchasing a few Koi.

A Pond for You
If you want to keep koi, then you need a pond. It is best to build the
Biggest gallon pond you can afford, because these fish can grow in length
to reach twenty-four inches or even more.

You will also want to make sure that you have plenty of room for spawning when the time comes to breed your koi.

You may want to design your own pond, and do all the work needed to build it yourself.

You may want to hire someone to design and building a pond for you. You may decide to purchase a pond liner, filter, and pump from a dealer who specializes in fish ponds.

Formal or Informal?
One of the best ways to decide exactly what kind of pond you want is to look at what others have done to create theirs.

Keep in mind that you must decide on how large it will be, and
what shape will fit best in the area of your yard that you have selected for a pond.

Ponds can be formal, or informal, and it is up to you to decide which one of these styles will work best for you.

Pond Size Counts
Pond size is everything when keeping koi carp. Large koi or small, your
choice of size is going to affect how many koi you will be able to
keep, what kind of biological filtration system you will need to keep the pond
water fresh and clear, and how much time, effort, and money it will
cost you to do daily upkeep and routine maintenance on your pond.

Koi experts agree that if you enjoy koi enough to want to breed
them, you need to build the largest outdoor pond you can afford.

You certainly do not want to go to the time and expense of building
a pond (or having it built) only to have to build another one because your fish are outgrowing the first one!

Water feature Pond Depth and Width
Keep in mind pond owners that you need to consider not only how wide and long your pond will be, but also how deep is your pond water.

Long time breeders insist on ponds that are at least four feet deep,
as they claim the fish grow larger and have better conformation when living at this depth.

Koi also need a pond that is at least twelve feet in length, and has at
least one hundred forty square feet of water surface.

Once you see the number of fry that come from the first spawning
in your pond, you will understand why lots of room is essential!

You can certainly have a smaller pond, and enjoy watching your koi
swim and frolic about, but you will not have much luck in breeding your koi. Pond size is crucial when it comes to breeding.

Where to Build Your Pond
You will want consider carefully the area on your property that you
choose for the location of your breeding pond.

You will want your koi pond to be accessible to you, so that you do not have to put forth an effort to get to it.

If you choose an area that is difficult to maneuver in during good
weather, it may be impossible to navigate come winter.

The same goes for a breeding pond that is built during the fall, after the leaves are gone.

If your pond is too close to shrubs or trees, things may get a bit crowded in the spring when they leaf out and/or bloom again.

You will also have to put up with leaves dropping into your pond.
It is best to place the breeding pond as close to your house as
possible, so you can see your fish from a window while inside.

This makes it much easier to check on them during bad weather.

It also makes it much easier to feed them if they are just a few steps away from your door.

Sun, Shade, and Tree Roots
You do not want to build a breeding pond that will be in the sunlight or in the shade all the time.

A little sunshine is good for koi. However, koi can sunburn unless they have a place to go in order to get out of the sun.

Too much shade can inhibit the growth of the fish. Watch out for the roots of any large trees that may be nearby.

They can snake out much further than you would think. Many an
area chosen for a koi breeding pond has been abandoned because
of the massive root systems of elderly trees.

You can either be sure to choose an area that is not around any
large trees, or choose the type of tree that you would like around the pond.

Many people choose palm trees, as the roots of this tree cannot hurt a pond. Palm trees are not messy like most trees are as they shed their leaves.

If too many leaves make it into your bottom of the pond before you have a
chance to use a net to get them out, the resultant decomposition is
going to make your filter system work much harder than it needs to.

Providing a breeding pond for your koi may mean a lot of work for you if you choose to design and build it yourself.

However, you will be rewarded tenfold by taking the time to do the job properly.

How much does it cost to build a koi pond?
A shallow 4′ x 6′ or 6′ x 8′ professionally-installed pond, including
excavation, liner, filtration system, and simple rock border might cost $2,000 to $3,500.

As a DIY project, the same pond might cost $500 to $1,000. Larger ponds, depending on features and equipment, can easily cost $5,000 to $15,000 or more.

What is the minimum size for a koi pond?
Well, at three feet deep, a six foot by eight foot pond will yield 1077 gallons. But these are merely the minimum recommended requirements.

Also, the more fish you have, the larger your pond should be. A pond of the aforementioned size will be enough for no more than five average sized Koi.

How big does a koi pond need to be?
A pond for goldfish or water lilies need be only about 2 feet deep for zones 5 or greater.

Ponds built in colder areas may need more depth to keep the pond from freezing solid.

Ponds built for koi should be close to three feet or deeper to allow these larger fish enough space.
How much does a pond cost to build?
The average price to install a pond ranges from $1,288 and $4,882, with most homeowners paying around $3,005.

The expense is usually $2.50 to $7.15 per square foot. For a larger-scale project, expect to pay $3,000 to $8,200 per acre, or more. Ponds can be surprisingly inexpensive to install.

How much does a small pond cost?
Landscapers can charge anywhere from $3,000 for a small, simple pond, to $10,000–$30,000 for a larger more complex pond.

These expenses include the costs of the design, materials and labor.

The area must be dug out, lined, and a filter and pump need to be installed.

How many koi can be in a 500 gallon pond?
Most pond experts say you can have one Koi per 500 gallons.
But this is NOT true, The number of koi is dependent on the pond
location, size of koi, quality of water and climate conditions.

Small, shallow ponds can heat and cool fast. Our quarantine tank is a 12 ft intex pool that holds 1800 gallons and is 32 inch deep.

How thick should a concrete pond be?
You should consider pouring concrete for the sides of the pond as well. If they are vertical, you will have to form them with wood first.

The reinforcement should extend from the floor into the wall. The thickness of the wall should probably be about 6 inches.

How do you build a fish pond?
Set up a space. …
See if the dirt is suitable by making a small hole and pouring some water in it. …
Dig a hole. …
If the ground is not suitable for the water, put some material such
as plastic, sand, a thin layer of concrete, etc. over the dirt after you dig the hole. …
Put in wet land plants. …
Add water.

How deep does a pond need to be to support fish?
A pond for goldfish or water lilies need be only about 2 feet deep for zones 5 or greater.

Ponds built in colder areas may need more depth to keep the pond from freezing solid.

Ponds built for koi should be close to three feet or deeper to allow these larger fish enough space.

How deep should a pond be for fish to survive?
Koi ponds should be at least 3 feet deep. The ideal depth of a pond
that supports a population of koi is 48 to 60 inches, although koi can survive with a minimum depth of 36 inches.

That depth offers the koi protection from wading birds and also
allows for a more uniform water temperature.

How much does it cost to build a pond?
Average Costs to Dig a Pond. The average backyard pond is between 200 and 300 square feet. Since the typical price per square foot is $2.50 to $7.15, most people pay between $500 and $2,145. The total average cost for this size is roughly $1,100.

How many koi are in a 4000 gallon pond?
Let’s do the math using our conservative rule of thumb suggesting
one Koi for every 250 gallons of well filtered & maintained pond water. A 2500-gallon pond translates to 10 full-grown Koi and you have 30! Obvious Solution – Get rid of 20 koi or build a bigger pond.

How big is the average pond?
So, a pond with a maximum depth of 12 feet would have an average depth of about 4.8 feet.

A more accurate method for calculating average depth is to make
many measurements and calculate an average.

How many koi are in a 1000 gallon pond?
Just because you have a 1000 gallon pond and you bought a filter
for 1000 gallon doesn’t mean you can put 20 Koi in there and expect great water quality.

As a general rule, cut the number of gallons the filter says it can
filter in half, and even then keep the stocking density low.

How do I calculate the size of my pond?
Square/ Rectangular (Gallons): Multiply length x width x average water depth (feet) x 7.5. …
Square/Rectangular (Acres): Multiply length x width, then divide by 43,560 (square feet per acre) …
Round (Gallons):

How many gallons of water are in a one acre pond?
Example: I have a 1.25 acre pond with a 6′ average depth. 1.25 x 6′ = 7.5 acre-feet. If you are trying to figure out GALLONS, multiply acre-feet by 325,829 (gallons in 1 acre-foot) = Gallons. Example: I have 7.5 acre-feet of water.

How many koi are in a pond?
Let’s do the math using our conservative rule of thumb suggesting
one Koi for every 250 gallons of well filtered & maintained pond water.

A 2500-gallon pond translates to 10 full-grown Koi and you have 30! Obvious Solution – Get rid of 20 koi or build a bigger pond

Posted on

how to tell if a fish is male or female (sexing koi)

how to tell if a fish is male or female

how to tell if a fish is male or female (sexing koi)

How can you tell if a koi fish is male or female?
 
A mature male koi will have a slender looking body, while a female
koi will have a rounded body, particularly when it’s spawning season and she’s carrying a nest full of eggs!
 
Next, examine your koi’s fins. A male koi’s pectoral fins is thicker, pointy and solid color
 
How can you tell if a fish is a boy or a girl?
 
Look for tubercles. One of the main tell-tale signs that your koi
fish is male, is the development of tubercles (small white spots) on
their gill-shields head and pectoral fins it is well emphasized during
the breeding season.
 
Look for a thinner, more streamlined body shape
 
Look for a concave vent
 
Look for a midline ridge
 
Watch for chasing behavior.
 
Koi fish are a great addition to any garden koi pond or aquarium.
 
But whether you just brought your koi fish home or its spawning season fish friends
 
determining the sex of your koi fish can prove difficult for new owners.
 
This is especially true if the koi are still young.
 
But, determining koi fish gender is important for the health of your koi.
 
If you can determine the gender of your koi, you can more easily
watch for gender-specific sickness and disease in the koi’s life.
 
Male and female koi differ slightly in shape and size.
 
SEXING KOI FISH
 
Sexing, or identifying the koi fish  sex, can be difficult if the koi is under a foot long.
 
However, with older koi  fish you can easily identify the gender by comparing size.
 
Generally, male koi are slimmer and smaller than their female counterparts.
 
Female koi have a fuller body and broader shoulders.
 
But, at a young age, male koi are typically larger than female.
 
Male koi may also have larger pectoral fins than females. T
 
hese fins are more pointed than round female fins.
 
You can also identify a koi’s gender by examining the vent area on the underside of the fish.
 
A male koi will have a line from head to tail.
 
A female koi will have the same line, but will also have another crossing in a “T” shape.
 
A female’s vent will also be more round and more pink than a male’s.
 
Observe your koi during feeding to see if they skirt away or fight for the food.
 
If you carefully feel your koi’s pelvic bones, females will have a soft
abdomen in between the bones for holding fish eggs.
 
In male koi, however, these bones are fused. Again, these methods are difficult when koi are young.
 
Also take note of your koi fish’s eating habits. Females tend to be
more aggressive during feedings, staying near the surface and
continually eating, while male koi swim around more throughout the session.
 
During spawning season, male koi will develop some tiny white spots on the sides of their face.
 
These are called tubercles and feel rough to the touch, like sandpaper. Females do not develop tubercles.
How do you know if a fish is a boy or girl?

Boys will tend to have a longer, thinner body than girls. Examine the fins on your goldfish.

A boy’s pectoral fins will be more prominent and angular than a girl’s, with white bumps to the front of the fins. Study the shape of your goldfish’s body.

Do fish have a gender?

Most fish are gonochorists, but hermaphroditism is known to occur
in 14 families of teleost fishes.

Usually hermaphrodites are sequential, meaning they can switch
sex, usually from female to male (protogyny). …

The type of spawning that occurs depends on male body size.

How can I tell if my angelfish is male or female?

how to tell if a fish is male or female sexing angel fish
Photo from myaquariumclub.com

Look for a large crowned head on male angelfish. On a male, the front of their heads will have a high, noticeable crown. …

Check for a smaller, more rounded shape on female angelfish. Female angelfish might have more rounded bodies than males. …
Watch them as they swim towards you.

There are quite a few traits you can look for between the fish but,
unfortunately, it’s almost impossible to sex angelfish without seeing their breeding tubes.

In some cases it can be difficult to tell until you actually see the female laying eggs.

Sexing based on the breeding tube:

The female’s tube is blunt and wide like an eraser and the male’s is thin and pointy like a pencil tip.

Some of the traits you can look for to potentially identify a male can be:

A large bump on the forehead
The forehead drops down just before the eyes (females are more angular)
The belly line is more flat (females are more angular)

There are a bunch of other “ways to tell” out there on Google and
Youtube such as forked ventral fins, territorialism, amongst many others.

The best you can really do is try make an educated guess until you see them spawn.

Try putting a piece slate up against one of the side walls of the aquarium and see if a pair sets it up as their territory.

It becomes very apparent when they’re about to spawn because
they won’t let any other fish into their territory and you will see one or both of the fish pecking at the slate.

They are cleaning it and preparing it for laying eggs. learn more here 

 How can you tell a male from a female koi fish?

Male koi may also have larger pectoral fins than females. These fins are more pointed than round female fins.

You can also identify a koi’s gender by examining the vent area on the underside of the fish. A male koi will have a line from head to tail

Are fish asexual?

When a red-bellied dace and a finescale dace (freshwater fish in the
carp and minnow family) mate with each other, they produce a
hybrid with a very special ability: it can reproduce asexually.

This asexual hybrid should have a tremendous evolutionary
advantage over its sexually reproducing forefathers.

Can fish make babies?

After fertilization, the female can produce multiple batches of
babies without a male present.

Egglaying is also what the name suggests: the fish lay eggs instead of giving birth to little fish.

As the fish grow, they hatch into fry with an attached yolk sac, and then mature into fish.

How do you tell if a koi fish is a boy or girl?

A mature male koi will have a slender looking body, while a female
koi will have a rounded body, particularly when it’s spawning season and she’s carrying a nest full of eggs! Next, examine your koi’s fins.

A male koi’s pectoral fins, the ones near his head, will appear pointed and solid in color

How can you tell a male from a female betta fish?

Wait until characteristics begin to develop with age. Male and female Betta fish will look very similar when young. …
Observe the size and shape of their fins. …
Note his or her colors. …
Look for the egg spot. …
Compare their body shapes. …
Put a mirror beside or in the tank.

How do koi fish give birth?

Koi do not give birth to live young but instead deposit eggs in a method called spawning.

Spawning means to produce eggs or young in large numbers.

Koi are known as “egg scatterers” because they scatter their eggs all
over when releasing them during spawning.

If you want to learn more about koi breeding 
Posted on

koi breeding you need to know 2018

koi breeding

koi breeding tips that will make you breed koi fish successfully

koi breeding This is my personal experience on  how to breed koi fish.

I had also included the actual koi breeding step by step videos that I had done in koi breeding.

The videos start with identifying the koi fish genders down to hatching and caring and raising koi fry.

The most important part is to identify koi fish breeder gender check out the video below

How can you tell if a koi fish is male or female?

A mature male koi will have a slender looking body, while a female koi will have a rounded body,

particularly when it’s spawning season and she’s carrying a nest full of eggs! Next, examine your koi’s fins.

A male koi’s pectoral fins, the ones near his head, will appear pointed and solid in color

 

Also, check the male breeders if they are ready to be breed by checking if they have enough milt and sperm watch video below on how to do it.

 

 

koi breeding setup 

My koi breeding setup is simple DIY breeding koi pond tank and the materials I used are bamboo for the koi pond frame and Trapal for the liner.

koi breeding bamboo trapal koi pond

 

how old do koi have to be to breed

Koi fish are sexually matured when they are about 1-year old already but it is not advisable to breed them at young age

Why? because the membrane of the female egg is thin yet and the outcome is high mortality rate of the koi fry,

It is hard to determine koi fish age if you just bought it from somebody else or at the pet store, since sizes will not determine koi fish age,

because koi fish that are placed in smaller koi pond grows slow, so tendency some will breed even if their sizes are small because of their age are sexually matured already.

 

How long is a koi fish pregnant?

Koi do not get pregnant and are not live-bearers. Koi fish typically mate in warmer water in the spring or summer seasons.

There is no timeframe how long will the female koi fish developed eggs. What you can do is isolate the female koi fish breeder.

This will make the female koi fish breeder to store and develop eggs.

You can tell if the female koi fish breeder has enough eggs already by looking at its abdomen.

The female koi fish breeder abdomen will be swollen

The mating period lasts about two to three days in which the female lays the eggs upon various surfaces while the male shortly after fertilizes them.

 

how often do koi fish lay eggs

Normally koi will breed once a season on Countries that have four seasons usually spring time.

Why, because during springtime the temperature is warm and foods are abundant.

but not always, sometimes it will take warmer water and sometimes colder water.

Sometimes a sudden change in water temperature and water chemistry stimulate them to spawn.

Once instance to prove this is I transfer my large female koi to the breeding tank with cooler water

and when I check her in the morning it had spawn that night already.

It did make for a mess in her show tank. Some will spawn twice in a year, some won’t and even skip a year.

Some breeders will induce spawning so that they can develop fry on a schedule.

I always do this though I am not using an artificial breeding method controlling environment works for me.

I isolate the female from males and condition both the female and male koi fish breeder

I can breed my koi fish the whole year round since We don’t have four season here in my place.

Some koi will spawn later in the year but for the most part the farms time to a part of the season to keep their whole operation running on a schedule.

What age to breed koi?

A Koi’s prime mating age is between 3-6 years old, but koi have also been able to produce baby koi fish until they are up to 15 years old.

Make sure to give your breeding koi couple some privacy when it’s time for them to mate. Koi need a place to lay their eggs.

How long does it take for koi fish eggs to hatch?

Your koi eggs will hatch around 4 days after they are fertilized for colder Countries. 2 days for Tropical warmer Countries.

They will then attach themselves to structure like the side of the tank or pond for 2-3 days where they will be feeding off their yolk sac.

 

Is my koi fish pregnant?

However, your koi will appear bloated and pregnant for up to several days before she’s ready to release her eggs.

At this point, you could still stop the spawning from happening if you don’t want eggs or baby fish (fry)

in your pond by simply removing the females from the pond, keeping them separate from the males.

 

koi breeding Separate the female koi fish breeder for conditioning 

Separate the female koi fish breeder from male koi fish breeders. Why? It will help ensure the female koi fish breeder to develop more eggs.

If female koi fish breeder is mixed with male koi fish breeders in the community pond.

The males will mate her without your knowledge, so the female koi fish cannot store enough eggs on its tummy.

female koi fish showa breeder Breeding koi fish
Here is a photo of a koi fish female breeder prior from separating and conditioning

Watch the video here 

Feed your female koi breeder and male koi fish breeder high protein koi food pellets.

Feed your koi fish breeders plenty of live foods and vegetation

Watch video here

Live foods for koi fish 

  • Daphnia
  • Earth worms
  • Snails
  • Tubifex
  • Shrimp

List of vegetation that koi fish loves

  • duckweed
  • green pea
  • wheat germ
  • lettuce
  • water melon
  • azola

 

Observe the female koi fish breeder body specifically her tummy region if it became swollen already.

This is your indicator if the female koi fish is ready to spawn

You can also apply a gentle pressure in its ventral area if the tummy is swollen already if there are eggs already.

The eggs will come out if it is ready to spawn.

One indicator also is the tummy region is soft when touch.

koi breeding female koi fish breeder after separation Breeding koi fish
Here is the photo of the female koi fish breeder after separation tummy swollen already

 

And you can also watch the video here

 

 

Preparing the koi pond for breeding 

  • I change the water 60 % and leave the water dripping slowly this will stimulate them to breed too.
  • Add nesting media I created a floating yarn and net

 

how do koi fish mate

The male koi fish will chase the female koi fish and bump its abdomen to the pond wall or nesting media.

Adding the koi fish breeders 

I add the koi fish together at 6 pm in the evening and note this was also done at the full moon.

I check them at 12:00 midnight if they already breed but there was no koi breeding sign yet,

a breeding sign is female will gather the nesting media and seems like creating bubbles and males will chase her,

so I just leave them and then when I wake up at around 5:00 am in the morning they are already chasing and breeding here is the actual video of them breeding watch koi fish actual video breeding 

Remove the koi fish breeders after they are done mating.

You will notice if they are already done mating when the males no longer chase the female koi fish breeder.

You need to remove them fast immediately because after laying eggs they will start eating their eggs.

Then perform 60% water change this will prevent water to be foul because of the sperms.

in koi breeding you must always prepare methylene blue for protecting the eggs.

Place methylene blue to prevent the molds attacking the eggs.

how fast do koi fry grow this will depend on the temperature of the water the climate the faster they grow because warmer temperature stimulate their metabolism and this will trigger them to eat fast.

What do koi fish eggs look like?

Koi like to lay their eggs on pond plants, spawning mats, or spawning ropes. … Koi eggs are tiny and translucent.

They can range from milky white to yellow or green. After the next two days, the koi fish eggs will hatch

Here is a video of a koi fry growth chart watch it here

 

koi fry growth rate in the first week from hatching their sizes are about 1 cm and their koi fry color are all yellow yet.

you can watch this video of my 1-week old koi fry

how fast do baby koi grow to depend on the temperature, size of the pond and sources of live foods.

If you feed them daily with live foods they grow too fast also if your temperature is warmer they tend to feed more in warmer temperature because warm climate makes their metabolism fast, so they get hungry all the time.

koi eggs hatching depends on the temperature here in my place which is tropical and warm koi eggs hatch in 2 days in colder region koi eggs hatch for 7 to 10 days.

3-week old koi fry
what do baby koi fish look like It really depends on the stage for the first-week yellow, second week two colors appear black and yellow, third week 3 colors? If you want to see baby koi fish fry see my video below

 

1-Week Old Koi Fry Video

 

2-Week Old Koi Fry in our koi breeding 

 

3-Week Old Koi Fry

 

4-Week Old Koi Fry Video

 

5-week old koi fry video

 

5 week old koi fry

 

6-week old koi fry video

 

Here is the vidoe of my 7-week old koi fry now

Update of our koi fry today, they are now 8-week old koi fry, here’s a video below

 

Update today the koi fry are now 9-week old koi fry their number decreases because

I was not able to remove the tobi koi fry and last week also the water quality was degraded because some of the clams died and also their pooh increase already since they are growing to watch the video below

 

 

Here is an article about Tobi koi fry from http://www.raingarden.us

THE NATURE OF TOBI
Steve Hopkins
Rain Garden Ornamentals
June 2007
Anyone who breeds koi knows about tobi. In other species these are often called “shooters”.

They occur in goldfish spawns too. They are the fry that grow to juvenile size very quickly.

They are noted for eating their smaller siblings.

Most tobi koi do not have the refined characteristics the breeder is looking for, although some do.

I have never seen a good explanation of how and why tobi develop.

If anyone knows of an authoritative description, please let us know. Until then, I will give you my off-the-wall
theory about tobi.

I think tobi are hard to explain because there are two factors at work, genetics and blind luck.

Genetics: Koi and goldfish carry in their genetic code remnants of everything that come before.

A top-notch pair of gosanke or ranchu carries all the genetic material needed to make the ancestral common carp or crucian carp from which they were derived through selective breeding.

They also have all the genetic material needed to recreate the incremental steps in their evolution.

In the offspring from a pair of sanke you will find kohaku, higoi and perhaps even a magoi.

A group of ryukin offspring may include individuals with characteristics of wakin and common goldfish.

The more ancestral forms are always more hardy.

Left to their own devices and allowed to breed indiscriminately for many generations, a population of koi will revert
back to something resembling the ancestral common carp and goldfish will revert back to something resembling a crucian carp.

In a group of sibling fry, those with a more primitative genetic make-up will be just a little bit stronger and faster giving them a slight advantage when it comes time to eat or avoid a predator.

But, in the world of fish fry, a slight advantage can become amplified many fold.

There is a snowball effect. A fry that gets just a little bit bigger than its siblings is better able to
capture and compete for food so it grows faster.

The larger the size disparity, the bigger the advantage. So, over just a few weeks time an individual that is just slightly
larger than its siblings becomes ten times larger than its siblings.

At some point, the size disparity becomes so great that the larger individual can eat its siblings providing it
with a new limitless food supply.

The snow ball effect escalates. Blind Luck But, how can some tobi be excellent examples of highly refined koi or goldfish and show no signs of being a throw-back to an ancestral form?

I think it is because there is a blind luck factor at work as well.

Imagine a group of larvae which have absorbed their yolk sack and are ready to begin feeding.

Perhaps some arrive at this stage a few hours ahead of the rest because they were spawned first or their position on the spawning substrate was a fraction of a degree warmer then the rest, or because of some other factor.

The larvae instinctively dart at a moving food particle.

Some times they catch it and sometimes they miss.

They are growing extremely rapidly and catching one or two extra choice food morsels can make a difference in that growth rate.

Some individuals are just lucky and are able to get a tiny bit ahead of their siblings.

As described above, a very small advantage can quickly snowball into a large advantage.

An individual with no innate genetic advantage can become a tobi just through bind luck.

Another Observation In some batches of fry the size distribution is large and there is an unusually large number of tobi.

In other batches the size distribution is narrow and the siblings look almost identical.

In general, the better the fry are fed the less variation there will be in their size.

If abundant live food can be kept in front of the fry at all times while maintaining good water quality, there is a much lower incidence of tobi.

Under the best of conditions the growth of fry is phenomenal and most of the population (except for those with serious deformities) has the potential to grow at the rate of tobi.

The best way to minimize the number of tobi is to provide better nutrition and husbandry.

The biggest and best koi and goldfish will have had the best nutrition and water quality their entire lives.

Periods of less than optimal conditions can have long-term effects.

In extreme cases, we say that the fish is stunted.

The younger the fish, the more severe and lasting the effect of poor nutrition and water quality.

Tobi are considered by most to be undesirables.

If they are genetic throw-backs then they probably are undesirable. However, you should be on the look-out for those fish

which have both the genetic potential to meet your selection criteria and the good luck to have gotten off to a fast start in life and become a tobi.

It is always a good idea to separate tobi if you can; especially if they have become large enough to be cannibals.

But, do not automatically assume they have no potential.

Update of my koi fry check out this video

To be continue…