5 potential koi pond problems

fish diseases pictures koi disease spinal paralysis
koi pond problems
You’ve followed all of the right steps, and yet your Koi won’t breed. Don’t let another season pass without a success spawn.
Perhaps you should examine some of the common problems with
Koi and determine if the solution might be altering something
other than your breeding techniques.
The three most common areas of Koi problems are the following:
problems with Koi setup, water quality issues, and problems with the Koi themselves. Let’s examine these areas of interest one by one.
1 Problems With Your Koi Setup
a. Water Volume – This is the most typical Koi pond issue. If your
water volume is off, all of your calculations for your treatments and
heating requirements will be ineffective and create a sub-optimal environment for breeding.
While it should be relatively easy to ensure that you don’t have too
much water in the pond, a common mistake (particularly among
inexperienced Koi breeders) is too little water.
Why? It is easy to forget to compensate for natural loss of water
through evaporation and absorption. Check your water levels frequently and always before adding a treatment to the pond.
b. Incorrect Volume Calculation – Secondary to the needing a
volume correction, improperly calculating your water volume will also cause problems.
Some pond shapes, particularly homemade natural varieties, are
not easy to measure for volume accurately.
Furthermore, even if you know your pond volume from its
vendor, you may have failed to accommodate for displacement from your decorations.
Do yourself a favor and purchase a water meter for filling your pond. It is the safest and most accurate way to determine your true water volume.
c. Pump Malfunction – All pumps, even the most expensive brands, will wear out in time.
Remember that rarely will you encounter a case of a perfectly
functioning pump failing completely in a short amount of time.
Wear and tear will cause a gradual decline in efficiency.
You can increase the lifespan of your pump by conducting regular
cleaning and maintenance. Check for proper function frequently, and always keep a backup in case of sudden failure.
2. Water Quality Issues
a. Evaluate your water sources. If you are using tap water and your
Koi are not breeding, you may need to consider the possibility that
the tap water in your area is unacceptable for your pond.
In general, it is not recommended to use unfiltered tap water for Koi ponds anyhow.
While you can purchase purified water from the store, this will
become expensive in a short amount of time.
Consider installing a purifier for your house or at least the faucet where you draw the water for your pond.
b. If you think you may have water quality issues, you should probably get a salt meter. Without accurate measuring equipment,
knowing what your levels truly are is guesswork, at best. This can make hard, if not impossible to isolate your problems.
3. Unhealthy Koi
a. Inspect your Koi frequently. Look for damages to the scales, abnormal behavior, or anything else unusual.
Physical stress on your Koi will greatly reduce their likelihood of breeding.
Abnormal behavior in fish is the first sign of toxicity or sickness. Motor function of your fish will be easily affected by factors like pH or salt content of the water.
If your water is not cleaned or poorly maintained, you may
encounter disease, which can spread quite rapidly if untreated.
b. Not all health problems are easily identified. If you’re not handy
with a microscope or don’t have one, perhaps you should consider investing in one and a guide on how to use it.
Conducting periodic scrapes on your Koi and inspecting scales
under the scope is a good way to preemptively identify  koi diseases and
parasites before they become an unmanageable problem.
c. If all else fails, seek veterinary advice. No one will argue that
your Koi flock is a considerable investment, particularly if you are
trying to breed for profit.
Even though professional consultation can be expensive, the cost
may pale in comparison to the cost of losing some or all of your flock to a disease. Remember to consider the cost of supplies and all of your valuable time spent raising your Koi.
Why are my koi staying at the bottom of the pond?
Many people stock their yard ponds with goldfish or colorful koi. Both are species of carp.
If you live in the north and the surface water is cold from extreme weather, they will head for the bottom to keep warm.
But the major reason fish stay on the bottom of a pond is that is where the oxygen is.
Signs of Koi Disease
  1. Not eating.
  2. Fish segregating itself from others.
  3. Fins clamped close to body.
  4. Fish acting listless or lethargic.
  5. Gasping at surface of pond.
  6. Fish Sitting on bottom.
  7. Hanging near surface or near waterfall.
  8. Red streaks in fins.

Why are my koi fish dying?
Water Quality. This is THE leading cause of the death of Koi fish. It largely stems from the fish’s waste products and the first iteration of that is ammonia. … In the biological cycle of a koi pond ammonia is produced from fish waste, which gets turned into nitrites, then nitrates.

Why is my koi fish floating?
A sinking koi pellet may be helpful if the issue is caused by gulping air while feeding. Poor nutrition or nitrate-rich koi food may be the cause of a bladder infection or even stress causing the fish to swim strangely.

Can a fish recover from swim bladder disease?
When it is suspected the fish has swim bladder disorder due to a fall or injury, time is the only treatment. Keep the water clean and between 78 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit and add a small amount of aquarium salt to the tank. If the fish does not recover and is unable to eat, the humane resolution may be euthanasia.

Why do koi fish swim on their sides?
Although intestinal parasites and microorganisms can cause swim bladder disease, it mainly stems from overeating, eating too quickly or gulping too much air during feeding time.

Enough pressure on the swim bladder will cause the fish to swim any which way but up


is there a market for koi

is there a market for koi
is there a market for koi
Know your market is a business maxim that is drilled into every
business student, business entrepreneur and captain of industry,
and if you are planning to enter into the high-risk, high stakes
market of Koi fish breeding then this is a particularly apt lesson to abide by.
The Koi fish breeding market is not just a shapeless, monolithic
entity but is instead a highly segmented market which contains a
number of different niches and categories.
Each different component of the Koi fish market will require
different skills, resources and levels of commitment as well as
ability and therefore, it is vital that you are well aware of the required skills before you jump in.
Make sure that you give some serious thought and contemplation
to your intended objectives, i.e. the sort of business you want to
enter into, the kind of schedule you want to commit to (and indeed,
would be willing to be bound by) and what is the level of risk versus profit that you would be willing to endure.
Are you prepared to work long hours, and endure a lot of hard
work with little chance of getting a big payout, or would you rather
work a more flexible working regime with a greater chance of
securing a smaller amount of profit in the long run?
There is no right or wrong answer in that question, merely a
question of perspective and personal commitment.
For some, they prefer the security of a guaranteed amount of
income and a certain level of profit, and may want to enter into Koi
breeding merely as a hobby rather than a full time career.
Others maybe willing to invest the huge amounts of money and
time required in order to “make it big” in this immensely
challenging industry, but at the end of the day the choice must and
ultimately will, always lie with you and your expectations.
If you are looking for income security and cannot face the prospect
of huge amounts of risk for potentially no return then you may
want to rely on the more secure option of common koi selling and breeding.
Common koi are challenging to handle but not impossible by any
stretch of the imagination and best of all, they are an excellent way
for the would-be entrepreneur to obtain a solid foundation in the
koi breeding market before moving onto more grueling sectors.
Personal experience is worth its weight in gold in the Koi breeding
market, regardless of whether the type of Koi fish you are dealing
with is either the common variety or the more ornamental type,
and it is through experience that you will be more attuned to
potential pitfalls and red flags which will hopefully mean that you
are able to side step them comfortably.
Whilst Koi breeding is a possibility to help increase your profit
margin, you will need to invest a lot of resources before you will
actually see and be able to enjoy any actual sort of return.
You can sell Koi fish as part of a package, perhaps including a
garden or a pond or some other incentive in addition to the fish itself, in order to act as a “sweetener”.
This way you will be justified in charging more than market value for that singular fish.
How much can I sell a koi fish for?
Prices range from a $15 to $5,000 for the highest quality koi, says CNN Money. Prices are set by body shape and skin quality as well as the color and pattern of each fish. If you grow show-quality koi, you’ll be able to sell them for more money than younger or smaller koi.
Is breeding koi profitable?
Koi breeding can be profitable in one of two ways: 1) You raise baby koi fish and sell them when they are much larger. … Make sure to give your breeding koi couple some privacy when it’s time for them to mate. Koi need a place to lay their eggs.
Are koi expensive?
It is also true that certain varieties of koi are more expensive than others. A high-quality 6-inch (a white fish with large red patches) may cost $3000. A high-quality oghon (basically a golden, metallic-colored fish) of the same size may cost $100.
What type of koi is the most expensive?
A 76-cm (30-in) long ginrin showa koi, which won supreme championship in nationwide Japanese koi shows in 1976, 1977, 1979 and 1980, was sold two years later for 17 million yen (then £60,000). They can now sell for upto $ 2 Million. Kohaku, Showa, Bekko, Asagi, Shusui, Utsuri, Sanke, Tancho.
Why is Koi so expensive?
Good koi are expensive because it is a lot of chance and great selective breeding, they usually spawn one a year and the odds of getting a lot of great animals is very low. They are expensive to keep because of water use, electricity, high quality food and labor.
Why are koi fish so popular – What do they signify? … Koi fish are always at ease in the water, flowing as the tide runs deep under water. Feng shui, a spiritual form of organization and placement of objects, says that having the spirit of the koi near you will attract good luck, fortune, and spiritual benefits
In a pond setting, koi will breed as a flock, or group. … During spawning the malekoi will become extremely aggressive. Male fish will pursue the female koi around the pond, smashing into them repeatedly. This battering behavior is designed to force the eggs from the female’s body.
How long do Japanese koi live?
The short answer is they can live over 200 years. The oldest known Koi was Hanako who lived to be 226 years.
What is the koi fish symbolic of?
Koi Fish meaning in Japan is good fortune or luck they also are associated with perseverance in adversity and strength of purpose, the Koi fish symbolize good luck, abundance and perseverance. Symbolic in Buddhism is to represent courage. … Based on that legend, it became a symbol of worldly aspiration and advancement

how to choose the best koi

how to choose the best koi
how to choose the best koi
The successful thing of your pond fish has much to do with where they come from.
At all times, we suggest buying your koi from your nearest reputed
breeder rather than purchasing from a national chain or a domestic pet store.
Koi that come from a domestic chain usually undergoes hundreds,
if not 1000s of miles of travel before they reach their destination.
Also, koi from domestic chains leave uncovered to many diseases
and bacteria that criticize their capacity weak immune systems.
Additionally, domestic chain koi originally are not tracked or fed for growth.
If you are amazing what kind of koi you would buy, you would have a conscious mind on how to choose the best koi
There are lots of categories of koi, with most of them categorized by their color.
To add more texture, most categories have a scale and un-scaled verities.
Observe in mind, butterfly koi are looking good, but several true koi breeders don’t hold up this breed.
Butterfly koi fish  initiated from bury-breeding with lack standard
features appropriate for judging and Indonesian carp.
No matter what amount of koi you purchase, there are some
featured signs you should look for in healthy robust fish.
Also, you would have to conclude your budget, since koi cost could
go with quick steps into thousands of dollars.
First thing, the koi you conclude would be swimming and outgoing with the other fish.
Naturally, koi are timid, but the physically good koi energetically
swim with other fish and don’t stay about by them.
You would also choose koi that stay near about the top of the water
as you go past, so that you do not get the timid fish in a collection. Also, the koi should swim gently and smoothly.
If the koi jolts or twitches when it swims, or if the koi swims with
variable quality, it might have swim bladder problems.
Second thing, once you thought you have a quality fish, look
thoroughly at its respiratory organs.
Koi affected with gill flukes exposed to air through only single gill
and have redness around their respiratory organs.
If you perceive any of these states, then do not purchase that fish,
and precisely, do not purchase from that group of fish.
If one koi inside the batch of koi has gill flukes, then all of them have gill flukes.
Next thing, you should look over the body of your koi. The body of koi should be gently tapered, thick and well defined.
The skin of the koi should be flat with no visible injury.
The external organs of your koi might have some minor damage if
it’s lately been transported, or is kept in crowded environment.
This is tolerable as long as it is minor and there’s no redness.
When purchasing koi, remember koi’s color changes as the koi grown up.
You might purchase a koi with dark orange and black colors, and in a few months, you might have a koi with orange and red.
To avoid this, you could purchase an adult koi, but you will pay lot of money.
Another way to evade this is to purchase koi from a breeder, who breeds the class of koi you want to purchase.
Keep in mind that this is the most costly way to purchase a new
stock, but well justifies the money if you want an indisposed standard of koi.
At last, you should take care of the balance and proportion of your koi. The fins shouldn’t look too small or too big.
The stomach of the koi should severely taper into the pectoral and
dorsal part of the fish, and the back should be smooth and nice.
The face of the fish should be impressive and well defined- not too long and not too short.
Lot of koi keepers select to keep koi that are considered faulty by koi quality.
All that matters is your commitment and relationship to your fish. Lot of times, you find out that the mottled fish you own is the most personable and fun to keep.
Unless you are professionally showing or planning the fish at a
convention, you should purchase fish that plead to you.
how to choose the best koi related questions

How do you pick a good Koi Showa?
Many Showa do not develop Sumi until later, so try to pick a koi with good red and white with some black coming out. Next, look for a good kohaku pattern on the body. It should be balanced

Why is Koi so expensive?
Good koi are expensive because it is a lot of chance and great
selective breeding, they usually spawn one a year and the odds of getting a lot of great animals is very low.

They are expensive to keep because of water use, electricity, high quality food and labor.

How do I identify a koi fish?
These fins are more pointed than round female fins. You can also identify a koi’s gender by examining the vent area on the underside of the fish.

A male koi will have a line from head to tail.

A female koi will have the same line, but will also have another crossing in a “T” shape.

Are koi fish good for ponds?
Generally, the ideal size for a Koi pond is considered to be over 1,000 gallons and at least three feet deep. Size: Koi fish need a lot of space.

Other Installations: Though Koi are very hardy fish, you will still
have to provide them with adequate equipment to keep them healthy.

What is a Chagoi koi?
Chagoi. Chagoi are solid brown koi and are known for being extremely friendly.

They are wonderful for family homes and will always greet the
family when someone comes to their pond.

These koi also have large appetites and tend to grow large and fast! The paler the brown of the Chagoi the more valuable it is.

What is Gin Rin Koi?
Published on January 1, 2012 in Fish, Koi, Goldfish 1. Kin-Gin-Rin
(keen-geen-leen) is a reference to a koi’s scale type rather than the
variety of koi, and literally means ‘golden silver reflective scales.’ Most generally, Kin Gin Rin is abbreviated to Gin Rin by koi breeders, sellers and koi hobbyists of today.

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breeding koi for profit

breeding koi for profit

breeding koi for profit

Breeding Koi can be both fun and worthwhile especially when money is involved.

Who doesn’t love extra cash, right? With a lot of time, money,
patience and dedication, you could very well be on your way to creating your own personal gold mine.

There are some critical steps involved in breeding Koi, and for the
average person it may be a turn-off, but for someone who
understands the full financial gain, this is only a small sacrifice to score the “big win”.

It would be ideal to keep in mind the saying that, “Nothing happens overnight”. This is so true. Like with most things, breeding Koi is going to take real time and real dedication.

This is definitely not one of those projects you want to jump into
headfirst, not if you still want your head at the end anyway. Set realistic goals, so at the end, whether the result be good or bad, you are not left totally disappointed.

Money, money, money and plenty of it. The goal here is to make
money, but when starting a business venture, a lot of times you
have to put out a substantial amount of money in order to get a huge return later and this also applies to breeding Koi.

Koi, unlike the usual fish we hear about are very expensive to breed. You want to ask yourself questions like: Can I really afford to breed
Koi?, If so, how many?, What colors will I breed, What do I want
them to look like, About how big will I want them to get, and if you
don’t already have a Koi pond or don’t feel the one you have is big enough then another question may be “Where will I store them?” If you can answer these questions, then very soon you will be in business.

Be well prepared financially to bank roll this idea because between
purchasing the mating Koi, Koi’s food and equipment, you very
well may be on the road to shutting down your business before it ever gets off the ground.

Do research. You probably didn’t get up one morning and decide you want to breed Koi.

There are plenty of other people who are breeding Koi or will do so
in the future, so read about breeding Koi from others like yourself
who are either already doing it, or may know someone who has
done it; this will prevent some major mistakes on your part and
save some of that money that breeding is supposed to bring in for you. Practice and studying does make perfect.

You might even want to frequent Koi breeding forums on the internet. As computer savvy as you are, I am sure you will find everything you are looking for right on the internet.

No one knows what type of outcome you are expecting, except you
and since you are the one executing, it will get nothing less than the best effort that you can put forth.

Stay ahead of the game. You may not have initially began this
venture with an interest in breeding Koi, but most often you will
find money is an incredible motivator.
Whatever you do don’t gibe up.

The best jobs are those where you can have fun while you work, so
be persistent but find newer and more fun ways to accomplish your
goal, and in this way, you will be able to stick around and watch your investment grow right before your very eyes.

Is breeding koi profitable?
Koi breeding can be profitable in one of two ways: 1) You raise baby koi fish and sell them when they are much larger. … Make sure to give your breeding koi couple some privacy when it’s time for them to mate. Koi need a place to lay their eggs.

How much can I sell a koi fish for?
Prices range from a $15 to $5,000 for the highest quality koi, says CNN Money. Prices are set by body shape and skin quality as well as the color and pattern of each fish. If you grow show-quality koi, you’ll be able to sell them for more money than younger or smaller koi.

What time of year do koi lay eggs?
The fish typically spawn when water temperatures are 65° to 70°F. In many ponds, this typically happens between May and June – in late spring and early summer, when the birds and bees start to get busy! Give Them a Love Nest – Like you and me, koi like their privacy when it’s time for them to mate.

How big do koi need to be to breed?
Choose koi that are at least 3 years old. Koi don’t sexually mature until they are about 3 years old. Wait until they are 3 years old to increase their likelihood of breeding and producing quality offspring. Koi are about 10 inches (25 cm) long when they are 3 years old.

How can you tell if a koi fish is pregnant?
How to Tell If Your Koi Is Pregnant
Look at your koi and try to determine whether the belly looks rounded or a bit bumpy in appearance. A pregnant koi will have a very full, almost “bloated” look about it. …
Feed your female koi high amounts of protein before it lays eggs if you are aware of the pregnancy. …
Determine the age of your fish.

How many eggs do koi fish lay?
It is possible though that younger Koi will breed but their offspring will be of poor quality. The female is capable of carrying around 100,000 eggs for every 1kg of body weight. So a female of 10kg in weight will pass 1,000,000 eggs of which 60% will hatch.

Why is Koi so expensive?
Good koi are expensive because it is a lot of chance and great selective breeding, they usually spawn one a year and the odds of getting a lot of great animals is very low. They are expensive to keep because of water use, electricity, high quality food and labor.


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Stages Of Improvement Of The Company In Accordance With a Given Course Of Development:

effective management skills

Stages Of Improvement Of The Company In Accordance With a Given Course Of Development:

This stage of the development of the strategic management system can be called “fine tuning” – the prescribed plan is being improved, honed, and work is under way on errors.

A business that has grown to this stage is already moving into the category of large – here begins the formalization of business processes, the decomposition of global strategic goals into short-term goals with a description of detailed tasks and steps, the compilation of detailed goal setting for each enterprise division and much more. ZoeTalentSolutionsto know more about management skills.

This is the stage at which the corporate culture, mission and values of the company originate and are described; the management uses not only the task setting, delegation and control tools, but also actively engages work with the individual goals of the employees (the value management is born).

This stage is quite natural and achievable, provided that the company uses at the previous stages of its formation and further growth the formalization of goals, the specification of tasks for performers, the constant tracking of their achievement.

It may seem that only this is not enough for full strategic planning. But often, an effectively tuned goal setting system (the preliminary and first stage of creating a strategic management system) is fully satisfied not only with the early stages of business development, but also with more mature companies, for whom the ease of using the system and the simplicity of perceiving necessary information are important.

How to set goals?
At the stage of implementation of the task, the entrepreneur is faced with the fact that the quality of its performance is lame or the task is simply not performed.

In 90% of cases, this is not due to the qualifications and motivation of the contractor, but to fuzzy planning – firstly, the wording is very vague and can be interpreted dually, and secondly, the goal is not fixed anywhere (not recorded), is not tied to anything it is not clear how it affects the achievement of other goals), and is not defined in time.

The employee is forced to perform the task, based on his understanding, and the result at the exit rarely coincides with what is desirable for the manager. Compare: the goal is “to increase the sales of products” and “to increase the sales of food processing films by 20% by July 2014 compared to the same period of the previous year” with the designation of resources, performers, control points.

Key Strategic Planning Theses:
It is important for the owner of small and medium business to understand that just one mental “picture” of the development of his company is not enough – it should be stated in the form of a document.

This may not necessarily be a paper talmud – today it is more relevant to use auxiliary electronic planning systems that allow you to visually set out a vision of where the company is aiming for and what goals it should achieve, as well as manage it daily.

The presence of such clearly defined and specific tasks, divided into stages, allows you to more accurately synchronize the efforts of all staff, help eliminate possible disputes and misunderstandings, reduce the risk of “bottlenecks” and allow you to track at what stage you are at.

The Strategic plansets the main guidelines in the development of the company, allowing for a more systematic and adequate assessment of the internal resources of the organization and the market opportunities for its development.

The existence of such a plan does not guarantee 100% success of the enterprise, because errors in motivation, some force majeure circumstances or other factors cannot be excluded.

However, visualized planning, describing your own goals and tracking them online will create the most favorable conditions for the growth of the company, its strengthening in the market and the effective distribution of available resources within the organization.

how to tell if a fish is male or female (sexing koi)

how to tell if a fish is male or female

how to tell if a fish is male or female (sexing koi)

How can you tell if a koi fish is male or female?
A mature male koi will have a slender looking body, while a female
koi will have a rounded body, particularly when it’s spawning season and she’s carrying a nest full of eggs!
Next, examine your koi’s fins. A male koi’s pectoral fins is thicker, pointy and solid color
How can you tell if a fish is a boy or a girl?
Look for tubercles. One of the main tell-tale signs that your koi
fish is male, is the development of tubercles (small white spots) on
their gill-shields head and pectoral fins it is well emphasized during
the breeding season.
Look for a thinner, more streamlined body shape
Look for a concave vent
Look for a midline ridge
Watch for chasing behavior.
Koi fish are a great addition to any garden koi pond or aquarium.
But whether you just brought your koi fish home or its spawning season fish friends
determining the sex of your koi fish can prove difficult for new owners.
This is especially true if the koi are still young.
But, determining koi fish gender is important for the health of your koi.
If you can determine the gender of your koi, you can more easily
watch for gender-specific sickness and disease in the koi’s life.
Male and female koi differ slightly in shape and size.
Sexing, or identifying the koi fish  sex, can be difficult if the koi is under a foot long.
However, with older koi  fish you can easily identify the gender by comparing size.
Generally, male koi are slimmer and smaller than their female counterparts.
Female koi have a fuller body and broader shoulders.
But, at a young age, male koi are typically larger than female.
Male koi may also have larger pectoral fins than females. T
hese fins are more pointed than round female fins.
You can also identify a koi’s gender by examining the vent area on the underside of the fish.
A male koi will have a line from head to tail.
A female koi will have the same line, but will also have another crossing in a “T” shape.
A female’s vent will also be more round and more pink than a male’s.
Observe your koi during feeding to see if they skirt away or fight for the food.
If you carefully feel your koi’s pelvic bones, females will have a soft
abdomen in between the bones for holding fish eggs.
In male koi, however, these bones are fused. Again, these methods are difficult when koi are young.
Also take note of your koi fish’s eating habits. Females tend to be
more aggressive during feedings, staying near the surface and
continually eating, while male koi swim around more throughout the session.
During spawning season, male koi will develop some tiny white spots on the sides of their face.
These are called tubercles and feel rough to the touch, like sandpaper. Females do not develop tubercles.
How do you know if a fish is a boy or girl?

Boys will tend to have a longer, thinner body than girls. Examine the fins on your goldfish.

A boy’s pectoral fins will be more prominent and angular than a girl’s, with white bumps to the front of the fins. Study the shape of your goldfish’s body.

Do fish have a gender?

Most fish are gonochorists, but hermaphroditism is known to occur
in 14 families of teleost fishes.

Usually hermaphrodites are sequential, meaning they can switch
sex, usually from female to male (protogyny). …

The type of spawning that occurs depends on male body size.

How can I tell if my angelfish is male or female?

how to tell if a fish is male or female sexing angel fish
Photo from myaquariumclub.com

Look for a large crowned head on male angelfish. On a male, the front of their heads will have a high, noticeable crown. …

Check for a smaller, more rounded shape on female angelfish. Female angelfish might have more rounded bodies than males. …
Watch them as they swim towards you.

There are quite a few traits you can look for between the fish but,
unfortunately, it’s almost impossible to sex angelfish without seeing their breeding tubes.

In some cases it can be difficult to tell until you actually see the female laying eggs.

Sexing based on the breeding tube:

The female’s tube is blunt and wide like an eraser and the male’s is thin and pointy like a pencil tip.

Some of the traits you can look for to potentially identify a male can be:

A large bump on the forehead
The forehead drops down just before the eyes (females are more angular)
The belly line is more flat (females are more angular)

There are a bunch of other “ways to tell” out there on Google and
Youtube such as forked ventral fins, territorialism, amongst many others.

The best you can really do is try make an educated guess until you see them spawn.

Try putting a piece slate up against one of the side walls of the aquarium and see if a pair sets it up as their territory.

It becomes very apparent when they’re about to spawn because
they won’t let any other fish into their territory and you will see one or both of the fish pecking at the slate.

They are cleaning it and preparing it for laying eggs. learn more here 

 How can you tell a male from a female koi fish?

Male koi may also have larger pectoral fins than females. These fins are more pointed than round female fins.

You can also identify a koi’s gender by examining the vent area on the underside of the fish. A male koi will have a line from head to tail

Are fish asexual?

When a red-bellied dace and a finescale dace (freshwater fish in the
carp and minnow family) mate with each other, they produce a
hybrid with a very special ability: it can reproduce asexually.

This asexual hybrid should have a tremendous evolutionary
advantage over its sexually reproducing forefathers.

Can fish make babies?

After fertilization, the female can produce multiple batches of
babies without a male present.

Egglaying is also what the name suggests: the fish lay eggs instead of giving birth to little fish.

As the fish grow, they hatch into fry with an attached yolk sac, and then mature into fish.

How do you tell if a koi fish is a boy or girl?

A mature male koi will have a slender looking body, while a female
koi will have a rounded body, particularly when it’s spawning season and she’s carrying a nest full of eggs! Next, examine your koi’s fins.

A male koi’s pectoral fins, the ones near his head, will appear pointed and solid in color

How can you tell a male from a female betta fish?

Wait until characteristics begin to develop with age. Male and female Betta fish will look very similar when young. …
Observe the size and shape of their fins. …
Note his or her colors. …
Look for the egg spot. …
Compare their body shapes. …
Put a mirror beside or in the tank.

How do koi fish give birth?

Koi do not give birth to live young but instead deposit eggs in a method called spawning.

Spawning means to produce eggs or young in large numbers.

Koi are known as “egg scatterers” because they scatter their eggs all
over when releasing them during spawning.

If you want to learn more about koi breeding 
How can you tell if a koi fish is pregnant?
Look at your koi and try to determine whether the belly looks rounded or a bit bumpy in appearance. A pregnant koi will have a very full, almost “bloated” look about it. …
Feed your female koi high amounts of protein before it lays eggs if you are aware of the pregnancy. …
Determine the age of your fish.
Do koi fish get pregnant?

“Pregnant koi” is a term for female koi who are filled with eggs they are ready to lay.

Koi do not get pregnant and are not live-bearers. Koi fish typically mate in warmer water in the spring or summer seasons.

what to feed saltwater fish

what to feed saltwater fish
what to feed saltwater fish
Anyone who has ever had a pet knows that one of the first things a
responsible pet owner does is make sure their pet has a balanced diet.
They know that the healthy their pets eat, the more likely they are to lead long and healthy lives. Fish kept in saltwater fish aquariums are exactly the same.
The responsible saltwater aquarium owner knows exactly what
types of food his fish needs to survive and makes sure they keep a ready supply of it on hand.
The first thing you need to know about feeding tropical fish is how much food they should be getting and what to feed saltwater fish
The general rule of thumb is that when you feed your fish use a stopwatch and time how long it takes them to eat.
It should take approximently two minutes for the fish to finish eating. If the fish in your tank finish their food in less then two minutes they probably aren’t getting enough to eat.
If after two minutes there is still food left over then they are
probably getting over fed and you’ll have to cut back.
A more accurate way of measuring how much food that fifty adult
tropical fish should eat approximately ten grams of food in one
month, but that can carry with variety and growth.
A balanced fish food typically consists of ten percent fat, thirty to
thirty-six percent protein. There should also be amino acids.
The first step in feeding your fish responsibly is knowing what type of food they eat.
Some fish can not be kept in a tank that has coral because they like
to eat the little invertebrates that make the coral their home.
Predatory fish typically need to have frozen or live food. Bottom
dwelling fish should be fed a type of food that is heavy enough to
sink to the bottom of the tank, these fish do not do well with fish foods that float on the tanks surface.
Aquarium owners who are interested in breeding their tropical fish
often feed their fish brine shrimp, which they raise in their own brine shrimp hatchery.
Many saltwater fish aquariums caretakers like using automatic fish food feeders. Automatic fish food feeders are feeders that can be clamped to the side of the aquarium.
Once the fish owner has loaded the hopper with food, the feeder
will automatically dispense the food at regular intervals, this allows
the fish owner to have more flexibility and not be forced to arrange
their schedules around feeding their fish.
The average automatic fish food feeder is not capable of dispensing
frozen or live food, which does make them convenient for predatory fish. Some absentee fish owners place food blocks in their aquariums.
Tropical fish owners should store their extra fish food in a cool dry
place in containers that won’t allow moisture to seep in. Frozen fish food should be disposed of after three months.
One of the dangers in overfeeding fish is that the wasted food can
wreck havoc on the pH levels of your aquariums water.
If to much discarded food is contaminating the water it can contribute to the death of your fish.
What do saltwater fish like to eat?
In a saltwater aquarium, many fish (even carnivores) can be weaned off of their usual fare in the wild and coaxed into taking hand fed foods such as pellets and flakes with their protein requirements being supplemented with frozen foods such as mysid shrimp, fish, squid, or krill.
What is the best food for saltwater fish?
For example, clownfish will often be fed various shrimp and small sea foods, fish flakes and pellets, and seaweed. A balanced diet between meat and herbs will keep omnivores colorful, healthy, and active. Fish pellets and flakes are best for omnivores as they contain both vegetables, algae, and meaty foods.
If you only feed your herbivore fish once every 2 or 3 days, it is not the way most fish eat in the wild, which is what we should try to duplicate as closely as possible. In my experience, feeding twice per day, only what is consumed in about 2 minutes has been the best.
Can I feed saltwater fish with freshwater food?
One of the most important aspects of maintaining an aquarium is Saltwater Tropical Fish Feeding. … It’s always a good idea to vary the diet of your fish and to introduce live foods occasionally. Flakes foods, freeze dried shrimp and freeze dried bloodworms can usually be used for either freshwater or saltwater fish.
How long can saltwater fish go without eating?
about two weeks
Beyond that, you’ll definitely want to make some accommodation to have the fish fed—even if just every two or three days. With respect to persuading a finicky new specimen to start eating, which often takes several days, I usually don’t start to get nervous until the fish is approaching about two weeks without food.
Clownfish require a rich diet consisting of meat and a small proportion of plant matter. Sometimes live food should be given to clownfish. That way, the predatory instinct of clownfish is satisfied.

The diet of a clownfish
  • Cooked mussels.
  • White fish.
  • Squid.
  • Peeled shrimp.
  • Cockles.
  • Octopus.
  • Chicken livers.
  • Small crustaceans.

Can you feed bloodworms to saltwater fish?
Tetra BloodWorms Freeze-dried Freshwater & Saltwater Fish Food are rich in protein and make an excellent supplement to flake and staple diets.

How often should I feed clownfish?
Mixing in some frozen foods or even live foods will keep your clownfish happy and healthy for years. It is best to feed at least once per day. However, depending on the size of the tank and the other inhabitants, clownfish will do just fine being fed every other day.

However, nightcrawlers and other earthworms can be used for smaller sea fish, like panfish, flounder, sea bass, school-sized stripers, and fluke. In fact, some larger species of earthworms do well in saltwater, as they tolerate near-freezing water.

how to get better at writing

how to get better at writing

Valuable Suggestions For Those Who Are Writing Thesis or Dissertation :

You do not need to follow an order:

The main myth in writing a thesis or dissertation is that you start by writing Chapter One and finish writing in Chapter Five.

Rarely this do happen. The most productive way to write a dissertation or thesis is to start by writing those parts that you feel most comfortable with.

Soon you begin to move in other directions by completing various topics or chapters as you think of them.

At some point you will be writing in several sessions. You can expose them in front of you and sequencing them in the best way to see what is missing or what should be added to your dissertation.

In this way you base your construction on those aspects of your study that seem to you most interesting.

That is, think about what interests you, start by writing about it and then continue building from there.

If you have more doubts regarding writing Thesis or Dissertation edupeet

Enjoy your research project:
If you have prepared a detailed research project, you will now be rewarded! Take the project and start by checking its research methodology.

Change the verb tense, from the future to the past, and then make the additions or changes so that the methodology truly reflects what you have done.

You can now switch sessions or chapters from the proposal to sessions or chapters of the dissertation.

Go ahead to the Problem Description and Literature Review and do the same.

Look for good examples:
Review two or three well-prepared dissertations-, if possible in your area. Examine the use of titles, style as a whole, typography, and organization.

Use them as a template for preparing your own thesis or dissertation. This way you will get an idea, at the beginning of your work, of how your work will look when finished. A perspective that will help you a lot!

Write clearly and leave no doubts:
The text style of the dissertation is not formatted for entertainment. The text of the dissertation should be clear and unambiguous.

To do this properly you should prepare a list of keywords that are important to your search and then use that set of keywords throughout your text.

There is nothing more frustrating for those who read than a manuscript written with several alternative words to say the same thing.

Beware of final conclusions / considerations:
If you are including a Conclusions / Final Considerations section in your dissertation, make sure you actually present conclusions and final considerations.

Often the author uses this session to merely reaffirm the results of the research.

Do not waste my time. I have already read the Results and the Discussion and now in the Conclusions / Final Considerations section I want you to help me understand what all this means – this is a key part of the thesis or dissertation and sometimes it is better to do it after having away a few days of your research, allowing you to put it into perspective.

If you do, you will no doubt be able to visualize a variety of new ideas that will help connect your research to other areas.

How can I improve my writing?
Here are some simple steps that you can take to improve your written English and impress people with your writing skills.

Expand your vocabulary. To express yourself clearly, you need a good active vocabulary.
Master English spelling.
Read regularly.
Improve your grammar.
Just do it!

How can I become a best writer in the world?
A Guide to Becoming a Better Writer: 15 Practical Tips
Becoming the best writer you can be isn’t easy, I won’t lie to you.
No matter what level of writer you are, there should be a suggestion or twelve here that will help. Read great writers.
Write a lot.
Write down ideas, all the time.
Create a writing ritual.
Just write.
Eliminate distractions.
Plan, then write.


types of koi The Different Varieties of Koi fish you need to know

koi fishes pictures types of koi

There are fourteen different varieties of Koi, with a fifteenth variety that is used as a sort of a catchall variety for all of the different types of koi that do not quite fit into one of the other fourteen slots.

This last variety is known as the Kawarimono, and a large percentage of Koi are placed in this category.

Inclusion in this variety has no bearing on the quality of the Koi.

Placement in the fifteenth variety simply means that there is something not quite right about the fish.

It may be attractive and healthy, but it does not fit the “breed standard” for any of the individual varieties.

All Koi have a unique beauty, but those who are entered in shows must resemble this standard.

Crossbreeding For Different Varieties

The many different color varieties that you will see were brought to fruition by crossbreeding fish that are closely related to each other.

Crossbreeding tends to make a genetic line more stable, bringing out the good qualities while pushing back the bad.

Those who are preparing to be Koi breeders are advised to learn about the different types of koiv arieties so that they will know which ones they are interested in breeding and raising.


types of koi asagi koi
Photo from hanoverkoifarms.com

The Asagi Koi is one of the initial varieties of Koi. The body of the Asagi is a blue color, with the lighter shades of blue most preferred.

The scales on the skin of the Asagi are given high importance. The edges of these scales must all be equal in length, and must be on the entire body of the koi from its tail to its head.

The red (Hi) color that appears on the sides of the Asagi, on the head, and on the fins sometimes looks more orange than red.

The Hi needs to be symmetrical on both sides of the Koi’s cheeks all the way to its eyes.


Three varieties of the Utsurimono have been painstakingly developed. These are the –

Ki Utsuri, which is a yellow and black Koi

types of koi ki utsuri
Photo from www.usakoi.com

Hi Utsuri, a red and black Koi

types of koi hi utsuri
Photos from cachepkoi.com.vn

Shiro Utsuri Shiro, a white and black koi

types of koi shiro utsuri
Photo from www.aquariumdomain.com

The Utsurimono should be heavily marked with black (Sumi) in order to display a prominent contrast with the yellow, red, or white.

All colored need to be somewhat balanced, as this helps to call attention to the pattern on the Koi.

The Utsurimono is sometimes mistaken for the Bekko koi. There are two differences to look for that will allow the observer to tell the two varieties of Koi apart.

The main variation is that the Utsurimono is a black Koi with red, white, or yellow markings, while the Bekko Koi are either white, yellow, or red Koi that have black markings.

The Utsurimono also feature black markings on their heads that run all the way down to their noses. The Bekko Koi do not have black markings in this area.


The Bekko variety is a white, yellow or red Koi that can be identified by the unique black markings.

This assortment has small and very simple black markings that are not included on the head of the Koi.

The Shiro Bekko is white with black markings. The Aka Bekko is red with black markings The Ki Bekko is yellow with black markings, and is considered to be rare.

Shusui koi

types of koi shusui koi
Photo from thefishdoctor.co.uk

The Shusui is the result of a crossbreeding that took place in 1910. One Yoshigoro Akiyama crossed an Asagi Koi with a Doitsu Mirror carp.

He ended up with a fish he called the Shusui. The color of this Koi is comparable to that of the Asagi.

The Shusui has a head that is a bluish gray color, with red on the jaws of the Koi.

The skin is a lovely sky blue, with darker fish scales outlining the lateral and dorsal lines.

Lines of red run down the back from the gills to the tail. There are several types of Shusui, including –

Hi Shusui Hana Shusui Ki Shusui Pearl Shusui


The Koromo koi is a relatively new type of Koi that appeared around 1950.

The Koromo came into existence by crossing the Kohaku with the Naruni Asagi.

The Koromo has a lovely pattern of deep red edged with black on a white background/body.

The red is described as being in a lace pattern, and the markings of the Koromo are prone to variations, depending on which variety you are looking at.

The most commonly seen varieties include –

Budo Sanke Koromo Sanke Koromo Showa Budo Goromo

types of koi budo goromo koi
Photo from Inland koi channel

Budo Goromo are a Goromo with shading that completely covers the Hi, creating a purple color. Budo means grape in Japanese.

Look for a Budo Goromo with a Kohaku pattern on it’s back. What makes an Budo Goromo? Goromos were created by accident.

How? A breeder was breeding Goshikis and a goshiki with a white background and a net pattern on the Hi appeared. This Koi was carefully bred and now we have the Goromo variety. Ai-Goromo Sumi-Goromo


In Japan, the word “goshiki” means five colors, which are red, white, black, dark blue and blue.

All of these colors can be mixed on the body of one fish. The result of this is a Koi that has a rather purplish tint.

Originally created by crossing the Asgai Koi with the Sanke Koi, the Goshiki has patterns that are quite striking.

These surprisingly lovely fish are very popular with those who keep Koi as a hobby.


types of koi fish koi fish image kawarimono

The Kawarimono classification is given to many non-metallic fish who do not seem to fit in any other variety of Koi.

This classification should in no way be considered as a variety in which to dump the oddly marked Koi! Many gorgeous crossbred Koi come from the Kawarimono variety.

Often, these are not bred on purpose, but appear in a spawning as a “sport” koi.

Generally, the Kawarimono are divided into three groups –

Single-colored Koi Black Koi Other colors of Koi Ochiba Shigure

types of koi ochiba shigure
Photo from https://mpks.org/

Have you ever seen a soft gray colored koi with gold patterning? If you have, you likely would not forget, because it is very different looking than the brightly colored koi we are used to seeing.

This quietly refined and elegant koi is called an Ochiba Shigure, which aptly translates to “autumn leaves on water”. The delicately reticulated scales do indeed give an impression of leaves floating on a calm pond, with the golden-leaved trees reflected on the surface.

A relative newcomer on the koi scene, having been around only since about the mid-90s, the Ochiba is actually a cross between a gray Soragoi and a golden brown chagoi.

These two ancestors have a reputation of being the friendliest of koi, and the Ochiba has happily inherited that trait.

Many hobbyists will have one of these types koi in their collection for the purpose of encouraging other, shyer koi to “come out of their shells” and be more sociable.

They will be the first to come up to greet you as you approach your pond, and will readily eat from your hand. learn more here kumonryu koi

types of koi kumonryu
Photos from Koiphen.com

Kumonryu. The Kumonryu is a Doitsu (German) koi that has a jet black pattern that emerges like billowing black clouds against a white background.   beni kumonryu koi

types of koi beni kumonryu koi
Photo from http://www.no1koi.com

Beni Kumonryu came from Kumonryu and Doitsu Kohaku. Since Doitsu varieties have no scales, their colors can be very bright and bold.

Beni Kumonryu are a rare form of Kumonryu, they have red along with the black and white. They are scaless and their pattern actually changes throughout the year.

No one is absolutely sure what causes the color change, but the two best theories are a change in temperature or a change in pH. Beni Kumonryu are usually black in the winter.

The white and red usually appears in the spring and summer. Chagoi koi

types of koi chagoi koi
Photo from
Helmy Iskandar

The Chagoi is known as the “gentle giant”. They are not the most colorful or fanciest of Koi varieties, but make of for that in other fabulous ways! Chagoi are the friendliest and most docile Koi breed to the point that most actually like interaction with people. In as such they tend to make all of your other fish more friendly and trusting. They are also known to grow large and grow quickly. They come in various shades from brown, reddish brown, beige,copper/rootbeer, and even shades of green. learn more about chagoi at hanoverkoifarms.com Soragoi Koi

types of koi soragoi koi
Photos from
Tuấn Huỳnh Ngọc

Soragoi, similar to Chagoi, are koi of a solid grey or silver color, combined with a subtle net pattern. Also like Chagoi, mature Soragoi are very docile and will be among the first koi in your pond to learn to hand feed. … Soragoi belong to the Ogon group of koi, which appeared in the Showa Period (1926-1989).


Ochiba-Shigure is an interesting name for a Koi. The words translate to mean “dead leaves on the water”.

These fish are clothed in the basic colors of gray and green with a network of brown lines, rather like the stems of a dead leaf.

Hikarimono (Ogon)

The word “Hikari” translates from the Japanese to mean “metallic”.

“Mono” means one particular single color. This means that the ogon koi is classified as a highly metallic-colored variety of Koi. There are –

Metallic silver, or Platinum ogon koi,

Platinun- Ogons are metallic white and are one of the most popular Ogons.

The color should be as white as fresh mountain snow. As with other Ogons

types of koi platinum ogon
Photo from http://cacanhthaihoa.com

Metallic yellow, or Yamabuki ogon koi.

types of koi yamabuki ogon
photo from http://splendorkoi.com

These two colors are the most common, and the easiest shades of ogon koi to purchase.

There is also the –

Fuji ogon koi, where only the head of the Koi is metallic Orenji ogon koi, which is all orange like a common goldfish, with a red splotch on its back. Goldfish lovers are usually quite fond og the Orenji.

Except for the Fuji, the metallic color of the ogon koi must be the same from the head to the tail, and even flow down to the ends of each fin to be considered “correct”.

The size of the fins also matters a great deal. Everyone wants to see long fins on the ogon koi, as they help to counterbalance the plain Koi body.

Ogon koi are a single solid colour with a metallic appearance. This variety is very popular, particularly with those new to keeping koi.

These fish can be a variety of attractive colours. Cream specimens are rare and the most popular choices are bright yellow (Yamabuki ogon koi) and Platinum (Purachina ogon koi).

learn more about ogon koi fish 


kio fish pictures hikarimoyo

Any Koi that are metallic and have several colors, but do not come from Utsuri lineage are in this group.

The Hikarimoyo-mono was created by crossing a Platinum Ogon with several other varieties, none of which had any Utsuri genes at all. This cross resulted in the

  • Gin Bekko
  • Kujaku koi
types of koi kujako koi
Photo from masterfisch.co.uk

The Kujaku is a metallic or Ogon koi with the reticulated net-like pattern of the Asagi on its back. …

The development of high quality Kujaku has led to their being judged in a category of their own at recent koi shows.

Kujaku are koi with a solid white base, accented by a black net pattern along with patterns of red/orange/yellow.

The net pattern is created by a black edging on each individual scale.

Variations of Kujaku include Doitsu Kujaku, Tancho Kujaku and Maruten Kujaku.

There is another group in this classification, which has fish of two colors, either gold, orange, or platinum.

These Koi are called Hariwake. The Orenji Hariwake and the Hariwake matsuba koi are two examples of this variety. Hariwake koi

types of koi hariwake koi
Photo from http://www.koiphen.com
types of koi matsuba koi
Photo from hanoverkoifarms.com

The matsuba koi is basically an Ogon with reticulation. It is a one colored metallic koi with dark pigment on the scales.

This variety is in the Hikari Muji class, and is considered one color regardless of the contrasting scales.

KIN matsuba koi are orange-red metallic skin, GIN matsuba koi are platinum based. kikusui koi

types of koi kikusui koi
Photo from Koi des Tages

Kikusui – Kikusui. Although technically they are the Doitsu version of Hariwake, scaleless white koi with patterns of orange or yellow

goshiki koi

types of koi goshiki koi
Photo from http://cachepkoi.com.vn

goshiki koi pronounced (gosh-key or Go-she-key by some) are an interesting breed of Koi. The name means ‘five colors” in Japanese, but frankly it is not a fitting name in my opinion with today’s goshiki koi. You do not readily see five colors at a glance and it is a stretch to do so no matter. This is one breed I feel the Japanese creators misnamed.

Most times the Japanese names are right on the money as for descriptive names that tell a story of what the Koi breed looks like.

The name was probably created because of the look of some of the first goshiki koi  created when they crossed a Sanke to and Asagi. Today yet I don’t see the “:five colors) easily. Anyway, enough about that.

The goshiki koi basically a white based Koi that has a fishnet black pattern on top of the white base that covers the entire back and runs from the top of the back down to the lateral line (center line of the side of the fish that runs from gill plate to tail base).

On top of the fishnet pattern there is a red or orange pattern like the Kohaku.

This pattern is called the Hi (hee) plate. One difference in this Hi plate from Goshiki to Kohaku is that the Goshiki Hi tends to be much thicker, bolder and more neon in color intensity as compared to the Kohaku Hi plate which can be a glossy red/orange but not neon.

The Goshiki Hi plate actually glows and gives the impression of thickness to the point that the Hi plate can look like a sticker stuck on top of the fishes fishnet pattern.

There are also offshoot breeds from Goshiki called Goshiki Sanke and Goshiki Showa. We won’t get into those details now though.

The term peacock koi refers to the five colors on the body of the koi.

The base color of this variety is white and the fins are generally white and free of any pigment.

The pattern markings on Goshiki are red, or Hi. … Kloubec Koi Farm is a breeder of Japanese Goshiki variety koi. Good read from http://nishikigoi.life article written by Author Mark Gardner Goshiki, a five coloured fish, created in the early 1900s have developed tremendously in recent years to the point where some consider them the 4th Gosanke, in place of Shiro Utsuri.

In this article we’ll look at the history of the variety, some of the most prominent breeders and the huge array of different styles that exist.

HISTORY According to Dr. Takeo Kuroki’s book ‘Modern Nishikigoi’ Goshiki were produced by crossing Asagi with Aka Sanke or Aka Bekko in 1918.

According to Shuji Fujita’s ‘Nishikigoi Mondo’ a primitive Goshiki existed from the mutation of Narumi Asagi and were known as Goshiki Asagi. Masayuki Amano’s 1968 ‘General Survey of Fancy Carp’ gives almost no mention to Goshiki, indeed the only references appear in reproductions of Masamoto Kataoka’s gene trees.

The first shows Goshiki Asagi being produced from Narumi Asagi and Aka Bekko, to then be bred with Kohaku to produce Koromo. The other shows Goshiki coming from Narumi Asagi. goshiki koi genealogy 1 goshiki koi genealogy history learn more


types of koi kohaku koi

The Kohaku is a White koi with red, or Hi markings. The color white should look as if it is freshly fallen snow,

and there should be no superfluous marks on the white to distract the eye from the pristine color.

The clarity between the Hi color and the white is called the Kiwa.

The pattern on the Kohaku should have depth and should be as well balanced as possible.

There are several different pattern types, including the –

  • Inazuma, which means lightning strike in Japanese.
  • Nidan is the name for two red or Hi markings on the white background of the fish.
  • Sandan is the name for three red or Hi markings on the white fish.
  • Yondan is the name for four red or Hi markings on the Kohaku.
  • learn more about kohaku koi click here https://www.giobelkoicenter.com/kohaku-koi/


Taisho Sanke

types of koi kio fish pictures sanke

The Taisho Sanke is a Koi carp with three different colors. In this instance, the colors are red, or Hi, black, or Sumi, and white.

The color depth and the balance of the pattern on the fish is important, just as it is on the Kohaku.

The Taisho Sanke should not have any black (sumi) on the head.

Black (Sumi) is welcome on the fins, and most particularly on the pectoral and the caudal fins. T

his is taken as a sign that the Sumi color should stay even over the entire body of the fish.

The red (Hi) patterns may be on just a part of the body, or can extend back over the entire length of the body.

Showa Sanshoku

koifish pictures showa

The Showa Sanshoku Koi has much more black (Sumi) included in its patterns than does the Taisho Sanke.

In fact, this classification is mostly black with a foreground of red and white markings.

Color depth is very important in this variety. The black (Sumi)should be deep and dark, the color of an object made of the dense and dark black wood known as ebony.

The red (Hi) markings need to be a blood red color, and the white should be as crisp and clean in appearance as a freshly washed and starched white shirt.

The white color on the Showa Sanshoku should be even and uniform on the base of the pectoral fins.

There are several different varieties of the Showa Sanshoku that can pop up in other Koi classifications, such as the –

Koromo Kawarimono (Kage Showa, Kankoko Showa) Hikari-Utsurimono (Kin Showa) Tancho Showa

What is a Chagoi koi?

Chagoi Koi – Mr. Personality (Chah’-goy) … You’ll discover this pet is probably more intelligent than other koi in your pond too.

It is almost universally agreed to be the friendliest of the koi classifications because it is the most aggressive at feeding time and almost always the first fish to become hand-tame

The Cha-goi is a part of the catchall class known as Kawarimono. “Cha” is the word for a tea-colored Koi that is a very fast grower.

The Cha-goi is very easy to tame, and most people thoroughly enjoy having this variety in their pond.

How many types of koi are there?

Types of Koi Varieties. There are over a 100 different types of koi (Nishikigoi).

To find the proper koi classification you will need to look at their colors, patterns, and body confirmation.

Each type of koi fish variety has it’s own specific details for identification and can described based off another classification of Japanese Koi type.

For example, a Showa Sanke is a koi with calligraphic Sumi pattern on Kohaku and the Goshiki created by breeding Asagi with Kohaku. View popular koi varieties below and click to learn about each type of koi.

What type of fish is a butterfly koi?

Butterfly koi, longfin koi, or dragon carp are a type of ornamental fish notable for their elongated finnage.

The fish are a breed of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, which includes many wild carp races as well as domesticated koi (“Nishikigoi”). … They are also sometimes referred to as Dragon Koi.


Also known as American koi, Butterfly koi, Longfin koi, and Dragon koi, the Onagaoi has beautiful long fins reminiscent of a butterfly’s wings.

The Japanese bred these koi, hoping to improve the hardiness of all koi by doing so.

A type of wild fish called Indonesian Longfin river carp were captured by these breeders to use in breeding experiments.

These carp were bred with koi that were more traditional in appearance.

The fish that resulted from this breeding had the long fins and the resiliency that hoped for.

Koi Purists Dislike the Butterfly

Other breeding experiments carried out in the hopes of setting the different patterns of traditional koi onto the long finned.

This attempt at crossbreeding was mostly successful. Many koi purists are adamantly against the Onagaoi.

This is the reason why many of the people who sell koi do not offer this variety.

Famous breeders in Japan would not think of breeding the Onagaoi.

These koi are not popular anywhere in the world except for the United States.

What is a ghost koi?

types of koi ghost koi fish

Ghost Koi. … The Ghost Koi that surfaced in the early ’80s are a hybrid mix of wild carp and single-colored metallic Ogon koi.

They are also referred to as Ghost Carp—one of the reasons that koi purists don’t recognize them as true Nishikigoi at all.

Tancho koi

types of koi tancho koi
Photo and description from simikoi.com

Koi with a red head patch are called “Tancho.” Most common are “Tancho Kohaku (all-white Koi with Tancho),” “Tancho Sanshoku (white Koi with Sumi similar to Shiro Bekko, and with Tancho),” and “Tancho Showa (Showa Sanshoku without red markings except for Tancho),” etc. However, “Tancho Goshiki (Koi of five colors with Tancho),” and “Tancho Hariwake” are rare.

Tancho do not form a single, independent kind of Nishikigoi; they all can be bred from Kohaku, Taisho Sankshoku or Showa Sanshoku.

Their red patch happen to show up only in the head region. Tancho, therefore, can not be produced in bulk even if you so wish.

The essential point for appreciation is the red patch in the head region, of course.

The red head patch sitting right at the center of the head region is the best.

The white skin is also important as it is the milky white color that sets the red head patch off to advantage.

The Sumi of Tancho Sanshoku and Tancho Showa are the same as Bekko and Shiro Utsuri respectively.

kikokuryu koi

kikokuryu koi
Photo from cakoi.vn


A Kikokuryu (pronounced Key-Ko-Koo-Roo)is always a metallic and always a doitsu (scaless or partially scaled) variety of Koi or Butterfly Koi

Kin Kikokuryu

kin kikokuryu koi fish

Kin Kikokuryu was first created in 1998 by crossing Kin Showa with Kumonryu by Mr Seiki Igarashi. This metallic koi have changing patterns and can change

Over the years the Kikokuryu has been developed into some other breeds like Beni Kikokuryu, Kin Kikokuryu, and the Pastel Kin Kiko developed By Hanover Koi

Kin Kikokuryu combine orange or yellow with the black and white patterns of Kikokuryu to form the newest variety of koi in the industry


Definition-It is a hybrid of koi of the Utsuri family and the Ogon


Kin-Showa, Gin-Showa

They are bred by mating the Showa-Sanshoku with the Ogon. Those which have strong golden luster are “Kin-Showa” and those which have platinum luster are “Gin-Showa”


(Kinshiro-Utsuri) It is the Hikarimono of the Shiro-Utusri with much platinum luster.

Kin-Ki-Utusri It is the HIkarimono of the Shiro-Utsuri with much platinum luster.

Kin-Ki-Utsuri It is a hybrid of the Ki-Utsuri or the Hi-Utusuri







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how many types of koi fish are there

100 different types
Types of Koi Varieties. There are over a 100 different types of koi (Nishikigoi). To find the proper koi classification you will need to look at their colors, patterns, and body confirmation.

how to distinguish types of koi

Trying to keep all of the varieties and variations of koi straight can be enough to make your head spin. Use this Koi Variety Guide to identify your favorite varieties

how can i tell what types of koi i have

There are over a 100 different types of koi (Nishikigoi). To find the proper koi classification you will need to look at their colors, patterns, and body confirmation.

betta fish care how to care for a betta fish you need to know

rosetail betta betta fish care

betta fish care how to care for a betta fish you need to know

betta fish care

betta fish care learn how to grow betta fish and breed them successfully


ORIGINS Southeast Asia, occurring in Thailand, althoughbetta fish care
its exact range is uncertain.

SIZE 21⁄4 in (6 cm).

DIET Prepared foods and live foods.

WATER Temperature 75–82°F (24–28°C); soft

(50–100 mg/l) and acidic (pH 6.0–6.5).


TEMPERAMENT Males are aggressive toward each other.
Siamese Fighting Fish
Betta splendens


The Siamese Fighting Fish is also referred to as the Betta, particularly in North America.This species was widely kept in Thailand for more than 200 years before it became known in the West in the late 1800s.

In their homeland, where they frequent the canals, or klongs, that flow through many Thai cities,

Siamese Fighting Fish were selectively bred not only for their color but also for their fighting ability, with significant amounts of money being bet on the outcome of contests between the more aggressive males.

Different strains evolved from cross-breeding fish obtained from various parts of Thailand.

As a result, it is now practically impossible to be certain of the original distribution of these fish, or of their natural coloration, even though alleged “wild type” specimens are occasionally offered for sale.

Current thinking is that wild forms were originally dark red, probably with bluish streaking on their fins and a pair of vertical lines on the side of the head behind the eyes.

Certainly, the wild ancestors of today’s Siamese Fighting Fish had simpler fins than those seen in modern strains.

It is likely that interest in keeping these fish for fighting purposes began not in Thailand, but in neighboring Cambodia (Kampuchea).

In fact, the Thai name for these fish is pla kat khmer, which translates as “fin-biter in Khmer” (Khmer is a former name of Cambodia). Since being introduced to the West,

however, breeders have concentrated on establishing a wide range of color forms, ranging from white through yellow to purple.

Selective breeding has also been used to modify the fins, which are always more elaborate in the males.

With the exception of the female Half-Moon Betta, pictured below left, all the specimens shown here are male.

In Thailand, it is traditional to house Siamese Fighting Fish in small jars, but these provide little swimming space and make it difficult to maintain the water quality.

The natural grace and elegance of the fish will be more apparent in an aquarium.

A single male can be kept in a tank with several females, or even as part of a community aquarium.

However, avoid mixing these fish with fin-nipping species, which will attack the flowing fins, or with fish of a similar coloration, which may themselves be attacked by the Siamese Fighting Fish.

These fish are easy to care for, but they are not especially long-lived, with an average lifespan of about two years. Pairs of seven or eight months old are best for breeding

.They need a relatively shallow spawning tank, about 8 in (20 cm) deep.

It must be covered and include floating plants, among which the male will build a bubble-nest.

Thai breeders often add the leaves of the Ketapang or Indian almond tree (Terminalia catappa) to assist with the conditioning of the water.

These leaves are available in the West through specialist suppliers.

Raising the water temperature can trigger spawning, as can increasing the amount of livefood in the diet.

Check that the female is in breeding condition, because otherwise, the male may harass her.

Aside from her slightly swollen belly, one of the surest indicators of the female’s readiness to spawn is when she develops yellowish stripes on her body.

She will actively seek out the male at this stage, rather than trying to avoid him


breeding betta fish

These are  the videos below of the step by step process in breeding betta fish

Step 1. place the male and female betta fish container near each other for them to see each other and be acquainted and feed them plenty of live foods like mosquito larvae, brine shrimp or daphnia.

observe if the male will build a bubble nest and look for the female egg spot by looking its vent there is a whitish color in the ventral area of the female that is an egg that is an indicator that the female is full of eggs and ready to spawn


Part 2 in breeding betta fish Video

Part 3 in breeding betta fish

It is the responsibility of the male Siamese Fighting Fish to construct a bubble-nest. Spawning occurs nearby, with the pair wrapping around one another.

The female will then float upside down, as though stunned, while the male collects the 15 or so eggs in its mouth and carries them to the bubble-nest.

Mating resumes once he has gathered all the eggs.

This sequence is repeated until some 500 eggs have been produced, with the entire process lasting about two hours. It is the best to remove the female while the male guards the nest, otherwise he may attack her.

If the tank is very large and well planted, however, it may be safe for her to stay put. Hatching occurs 48 hours after mating, and the young fry is free-swimming within a further four days.

Rear them on fry foods at first, and gently circulate the water with an airstone to convey food particles to them.

Powdered flake and brine shrimp can be provided as they grow.A large number of fry means that gentle filtration is needed to maintain water quality, and partial water changes are required every three days.

Once the males in the brood can be identified, usually, at about two months of age, they should be moved to individual accommodation to prevent fighting.

Prior to this, keep the aquarium covered to keep the young fish from becoming chilled, since this will impair the development of their labyrinth organs

betta fish names


My collection of betta Videos

Orange buttefrly crowntail betta

Dumbo ears juvy betta

How do you know if your betta fish is happy?

  • The signs of a happy, healthy, and relaxed betta include:
  • Strong, vibrant colors.
  • Fins are held open, but not taut, allowing their fins to billow and fold in the water.
  • Feeds readily.
  • Active, smooth swimming movements.
  • On the other hand, a stressed or sick betta may show the following signs:
  • Faded, muted color.

How do you make a betta fish happy?

  • The aquarium can be either glass or acrylic.
  • Plants can be either live or plastic.
  • Use waste-absorbing gravel.
  • Don’t forget a heater — bettas like to stay warm.
  • Betta food and treats (bloodworms are a nice treat)
  • Water and fish treatments.

Do betta fish recognize their owners?
Betta are quite intelligent as fish go, and they can even be trained to recognize their owners and do tricks.

They require stimulation and space to live well, and, as you might suspect, a tiny plastic cup doesn’t provide that.

Do betta fish get lonely?
It’s not that bettas have poor manners, but rather that they simply do not like nor need the company of other fish.

Their lack of friends does not cause them to become bored, but you may include certain species in the same tank as your betta. … Although they’re not fish, snails generally work well together with bettas.

How long can a betta fish live in a fishbowl?
Some Bettas may live for a year or more but on an average a Betta will live only for about 100 days in a bowl.

They need at least a 5 gallon tank. Please read the book Betta Bible. However if water changes are meticulous-50% every week and they are given sufficient stimulation, they can live longer.

You might want to know https://www.giobelkoicenter.com/indian-almond-leaf-for-betta/