How do you transport long distance koi?

transporting koi

Transporting koi safely from one pond to another or to a koi show. The potentially harmful effects of continued stress.

Oxygen in travel bags. For journeys significantly longer than an
hour in hot weather, there will be an advantage if the transport
water is cooled slightly by external ice packs.

Bags should be double bagged to give extra protection against leaks
and placed in either a box or a bin liner to cut out the light and hence reduce koi stress.

By identifying the potential hazards when transporting koi, we can
ensure that the risk of the hazards occurring can be kept to a minimum.

bagging and transporting koi fish

First, it is always a good idea to have all the equipment needed to transport your Koi fish on hand.

If you are having an emergency with your Koi, you may or may not
have time to make a trip to your local pet store to gather what you need.

The equipment needed to bag and transport Koi is small,and easily stored when not in use.

Koi fish , like any other pet, will have medical issues throughout its
life, especially since Koi have been known to have a lifespan of up to 30 years.

You contact the vet because you Koi is showing signs of injury or
illness, and unless you have a vet that does house calls, chances are the first thing they will say is “bring it in.”

Issues with your koi pond can arise, whether it is an emergency
move because your koi pond is placed into harm’sway by natural events or a planned move due to new construction.

No amount of planning can ensure that you will not have to move your Koi for one reason or another.

With the problems that arose from recent events such a Typhoons
and everyday events such as common illnesses, it is imperative that
you have a plan of action when it comes to your pride and joys.

No matter if it is an emergency or not, knowing how to properly bag
and transport your Koi fish could mean the difference between life and death.

Bags- You must have the proper bags on hand to transport Koi fish. Do not attempt to transport your Koi fish in trash or regular plastic
bags, as they are not designed for this, and may cause damage to your Koi fish .

Unless you remembered to keep the bags you brought your koi
home in originally, you will have to make a trip to your local pet store. Make sure to get bags sizable enough to hold your Koi fish.

Rubber Bands- You will need quite a few rubber bands for each bag you buy.

Make sure that your rubber bands are good quality, as you do not
want the pressure from the water to pop the rubber band in the middle of the transport.

Net- You will need to have a net sizeable enough to compete with your Koi fish .

You will never need the net to pull the Koi out of the water with, but
you will need it to lead and direct your Koi into the place you want them. Nets can potentially damage your Koi, especially as the larger they get.

Paint Bucket- A paint bucket is a better option for catching your Koi fish, as they cannot hurt your Koi like a net can. Make sure that your bucket is sizable enough to hold your Koi fish.

Bagging your Koi fish

The process of catching and bagging your Koi is actually pretty
simple as long you have the proper equipment available.

If you pond is large, you may want to consider enlisting the help of your friends when bagging your Koi.

Use the net to guide the Koi into the Paint Bucket. Once the Koi is in the paint bucket you can remove any excess water, and begin bagging the Koi.

Make sure that your check the bags for leaks. Once you are sure that the bag is secure, place the bag over the Koi fish from head to tail.

Make sure there is enough water in the bag to completely cover the gills. Leave plenty of air room so that the bag is not to heavy to carry.

Slip the rubber bands around the end of the bag and continue to double it until the bag is secure.

Place the bags horizontally in your transport container. Make sure that you do not bend the fish when lifting it.

Secure the bag so that it will not move with bumps and turns, and
cover the fish so that as little heat and sunlight can enter as possible.

How do you transport fish when moving?

Try to save 80% of the water from your tank.
Depending on the length of your trip, use either plastic bags or 5-
gallon buckets with water from the tank to transport your fish.
Make sure the bag/bucket has enough air for your fish.

How do you transport a pet fish?

Place your fish in plastic bags. Transport the fish in five-gallon buckets Put the fish in a container.

Transport the aquarium if it is small.

Transport your fish in an insulated, secure container. Choose a container large enough for your fish.

How do you move fish when you move house?

Remember NEVER move fish in their tank.Do not feed your fish
for at least 24 hours before moving, this will not harm the fish.

Fish should be transported in clean, strong, polythene bags part
filled with tank water. Gently place the bags into a polystyrene container.

How long do you leave fish in bag before putting in tank?

It’s important the bag is sealed tight, as your want your fish to stay
in its original water for the initial 15 minutes.

Simply set the bag on top of the water in the quarantine tank. The fish bag should float on the water’s surface. Set a timer for 15 minutes.

How do you transfer fish from bag to tank?

Allow the bag to sit for ten minutes, then open the bag and add a cup of your aquarium’s water to it.

Reseal the bag and let it float again for ten minutes. Repeat the previous step until the bag is full.

Then, you can use a net to transfer the fish from the bag into the tank.

What is a fish bag?

Fish Bag vs Fish Cooler. This can make larger coolers heavy to
carry without a friend to help, especially when loaded down with enough ice as well as fish.

A fish bag is typically made of a special type of foam and nylon webbing. They are able to keep fish fresh while maintaining very portable.

How long do you keep fish in the bag before putting them in the tank?

When you get home with the fish, put the plastic bag holding the
fish in your aquarium and let it float unopened for fifteen to twenty minutes.

You may want to take some of this time to re-arrange the decorations in your tank

How do you introduce fish to a new tank?

Once you get your quarantine tank set up, you can introduce your
new fish to the tank through acclimatization.

Start by placing the unopened plastic bag in the tank for 15-20 minutes.

After 15-20 minutes, open the bag and use a clean cup to scoop an equal amount of water from the tank into the plastic bag.

transporting koi
Phoot from

Transportation is a huge thing for fish. When they’re in the delivery bag life is much harder for them.
Ammonia in the bag accumulates, the pH drops significantly, and
they are jarred around and shaken up.
That is never pleasant for a fish, and the number trips an imported
fish must take to get halfway across the globe is outrageous.
So frequency, intensity, and duration of travel is drastically
different for fish from Japan or fish from America.
Combine that with the strained immune systems of fish from
established lines, and you should begin to understand why
domestic fish have considerably higher survival rates in the first year.
Although it is not as common as trauma during transport, another
factor that distinguishes domestic fish from imports is their familiarity with different diseases.
When those foreign fish get on the ground, they are not accustomed to some of the diseases here.
Unlike the Japanese fish, our domestic fish have had generations to
become adapted to the bacteria, viruses and parasites commonly found in America.
The imported fish come over and go into some of our facilities and
they’ve never seen a particular nella or bodo or parasite.
When they’re exposed to it for the very first time, their immune
systems have built up no antibodies to defend against it and it ravages them.

How do you transport long distance koi?

It will slow their metabolism and it will prevent them from fouling the water with their waste while they are in the bag. Koi can be moved long distances with either a car or by being shipped on an airplane. They should be placed in bag that’s filled with pure oxygen and sealed with a rubber binder.

Can you move koi in the winter?

Leaving the Koi in the pond. You can leave your Koi in the pond during the winter, as long as it is at least four feet deep. … Koi will stop eating once the temperature gets below 50°F. They live off the fat their bodies have put on in the late spring and summer. Their movement will slow down, along with their metabolism

Can you transport fish on a plane?

“Most airlines allow tropical fish to come with you on the plane and will not charge you for carrying them. However, TSA is much less welcoming to fish. The new liquid volume limits are a challenge, but luckily bettas can survive for short periods of time in small volumes of water.

Why is This Bird Feeding Goldfish?

Why Is This Bird Feeding Goldfish?

Why is This Bird Feeding Goldfish?

I was so amazed with this story Posted by National Geographic 

Why I was amazed on this? This is very unique since the bird make friends with the fish unlike my case where the bird king fisher

The king fisher bird always attach and eat my koi fish

Watch the video and read the whole story below

Aug. 8, 2017 A few year ago, a birdwatcher i rural illinois noticed a cardinal behavig strangely in her garden.

It seemed to be feeding her goldfish. As many as six times in a single day, the bird would return to the pond where the fish would great it with open mounths.

The bird would apparently feed them seeds and other food, as if they were chicks in a nest. In fact, the fishes’ mouths may have looked just enough like thousse of baby birds that aa parental instick kicked in Credit:cleandldy via Storyful

Bird Filmed Feeding Goldfish—Here’s Why
Are birds that feed fish good Samaritans or just confused? Experts weigh in.

First it was the hawklet adopted by bald eagles. Then it was the lioness nursing the leopard cub. And now in the latest example of interspecies care, there’s video of a cardinal feeding goldfish.

Originally posted on YouTube in 2010, the footage shows the red bird hopping alongside a goldfish pond, then dropping what appears to be seeds into their waiting mouths.

According to the caption with the video, the cardinal would come back to the pond as many as six times a day to feed the fish. (Explore National Geographic’s backyard bird identifier.)

Why would a bird feed an entirely different species? Princeton biologist Christina Riehl has a few ideas.

“My best guess is that the appearance of the goldfish’s open mouth at the surface of the water is just similar enough in size and shape to the open mouth of a baby bird that it triggers the instinct in the adult bird to provide food to it,” says Riehl.

Nestlings tend to have vibrantly colored mouths, often bright red and yellow. This acts like a bull’s-eye for the parents—a visual cue that says “Feed me here!”


These Animals Thrive in the Hottest Places on Earth
Video Shows How Sharks ‘Sleep’ in Large Groups
New Miniature Shark Species Glows In the Dark
“It’s an amazing demonstration of how simple stimuli can trigger very hardwired behaviors, even in situations that seem obviously wrong to us,” she says.

While the confused cardinal may make for an amusing video, “a cardinal feeding goldfish is certainly wasting its time, biologically speaking,” says Riehl. “Especially if the cardinal is feeding goldfish instead of feeding its own young.”

But from the fish’s perspective, it’s probably happy to accept a free meal, says Kevin Roche, a biologist at the Czech Academy of Sciences.

Roche says that carp—the fish family to which goldfish belong—are intelligent, and can remember areas where food is abundant or regularly provided. (Read about a three-pound goldfish caught in Detroit.)

While they may look dopey gulping at the surface of the water, it has a purpose: To suck down insects and other prey as well as acquire more oxygen.

The cardinal-feeding-goldfish video is not the first record of this kind of behavior.

Robert Mulvihill, an ornithologist at the National Aviary in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, says that the LIFE Nature Library books from the 1960s ran a black-and-white photograph of a cardinal feeding a goldfish.

As in the 2010 video, “the explanation, as best I can recall, was that it represented redirected parental feeding behavior, perhaps on the part of a bird that recently had lost its own brood,” says Mulvihill.

Interestingly, there are also clips online that seem to show black swans and a baby duckling “feeding” goldfish. But is it the same behavior? (See a picture of a see-through goldfish.)

Riehl isn’t so sure. She says that newborn cardinal chicks are altricial, which means they’re naked, blind, and reliant on their parents for everything.

But most waterfowl young are precocial, which means they’re fluffy, open-eyed, and capable of leaving the nest soon after hatching.

So, in theory, waterfowl shouldn’t react to a begging mouth the same way the cardinal does.

J. Dale James, director of conservation science and planning for Ducks Unlimited, seems to agree.

“Both the swans and the duckling look to me to be in a captive type of environment,” says James.

“As such, they are probably eating pellet type foods and it’s not unusual that they dip those in water while eating.”

koi fish color meaning chart 12 Koi Fish color meaning in English

koi fish color meaning chart

This is koi fish color meaning chart guide to koi fish meaning behind types of koi fish and behind koi fish tattoo

Koi fish color meaning chart for Types of koi fish

You can easily identify koi fish variety by looking on this koi fish meaning color chart

koi fish color meaning chart

Look at the different types of koi fish below look at their respective variety and refer it to the chart above then you can now easily Identify them if you can memorize the koi fish meaning into English from Japanese terms.

Japanese descriptions of color are important in koi nomenclature. Some have many names depending on the form in which that color appears.


Distinguishing between koi varieties can be extremely confusing at
first, partly because they are referred to in the West by traditional
Japanese descriptions, even if they have been bred in other countries.

Knowledge of a few basic terms, such as the words to describe the
various colors (right) and the main varieties (below), is a useful
introduction to the complex
world of koi nomenclature.

The illustrations below give examples of the main koi varieties,
highlighting their individual characteristics.

The most popular varieties, known as “Go Sanke,” are the Showa, Kohaku, and Sanke.

Varieties prefixed with the term “Hikari” are metallic koi, which
have an overall reflective luster, while all others are known as nonmetallic.

Also to the color differences described here, the appearance of
a koi is influenced by its pattern of scalation.

“Doitsu” koi, for example, may have large mirror scales on either
side of the dorsal fin, but are scaleless elsewhere, while the scale type known as “Kin

Gin Rin,” or simply “Gin Rin,” is characterized by the sparkling appearance of the scales.

Ai Goromo asagi koi fish goshiki koi fish utsuri mono koi fish Kin Showa koi fish color meaning chart koi fish color meaning chart Hikarimoyo


koi fish color meaning chart Kawarimono

What does a black koi fish represent?

Swimming koi represent advancement and determination. Fish in
general symbolize wealth and surplus, and the Chinese believe koi
particularly represent good fortune in business and academics.

Buddhists on the other hand see koi as representations of courage. Together in a koi pond, they represent love and friendship.

black koi fish meaning in feng shui

The koi fish has profound meaning, according to Japanese legend. … The black koi is associated with successfully overcoming an obstacle.

the black koi fish is used to represent adverse struggle to succeed. It can be a story of rags to riches

koi fish color meaning chart Ki Bekko koi fish color meaning chart kohaku koi fish color meaning chart sanke koi fish koi fish color meaning chart showa koi fish koi fish color meaning chart tancho kohaku koi fish color meaning chart yamabuki ogon

For koi fish meaning behind koi fish tattoo click here 

Koi fish meaning on koi fish fenghui painting video below

Ogon koi fish

Ogon koi fish


A golden koi is defined as “Ogon”


It was bred by Mr. Sawata Aoki and his on in 1946. First he found a koi with golden lines on the back and made it a parent.

He chose the best golden koi one generation after another. In the fourth or the fith generation a Kin Kabuto golden headed koi and a Sakin gold dust koi were breed.

Mating them with a female Shiro-Fuji (White Mt. Fuji) a golden koi was finally bred. Being hybridized with other species, the Ogon is an Origin of many kinds of the Hikarimono.

Sawata Aoki, a Niigata peasant.In 1921, Mr. Sawata was walking along a mountain path toward the river, carrying his lunch, when he met up with a boy who had caught a carp with golden scales on its flanks.

Sawata was so deeply impressed that he bought the fish at the first price asked.

He spawned the fish and selected from the offspring the ones with the most golden color.

After four or five generations, he had produced ones with golden heads, silvery heads, and other varieties.

He purchased more breeding stock until he became too poor.He wanted a new breed known as gin-fuji, but the price was 60 yen, the cost of a large bag of rice.

That was too expensive for him.If he had bought the fish, his family would have gone hungry.

Knowing her father’s troubles, his daughter left home to work as a health nurse for six months.

Upon returning home, she gave her father her salary of 60 yen to purchase the parent fish.

From the spawnings that followed, two ogon with an entirely golden, shiny body were produced.

“It was just after the end of the war World War II) and food was scanty, however, his family supported him to feed the koi by reducing their own food.

In spite of rain or wind, Mr.Sawata went to and from the pond with an empty stomach to feed the koi with locusts that he had caught and crushed with his teeth.

After many years of effort, at the age of 74, he finally succeeded in producing the ogon.

Points for appreciation

  1. The head should be brightly golden
  2. Its scale has golden trimmings. If a fish has these scales spreading on the abdominal region, too the fish is valuable.
  3. The pectoral fins should be shiny.
  4. The fish should be well-figured.
  5. As the temperature rises golden color is apt to become dark. A fish of which golden color does not get dark even in the summer is a good fish
  6. IN the case of the “Doitsu-Ogon” it should have neatly lined scales without a redundant scale.




A silver Hikarimono is called “Nezu-Ogon”. In Japanese “Nezumi (mouse)iro (color) means grey. “Nezu-Ogon” is shortened word of “Nezumi-Ogon” A whitish Nezu-Ogon is Shiro-Ogon


Platinum Ogon
Platinum Ogon

In 1963 Mr. Tado Yoshioka of Uozu city-bred a koi as shiny as platinum, mating a Ki-goi with a Nezu-Ogon.


Yamabuki Ogon
Yamabuki Ogon

It was bred by Masoka in 1957, a Ki-goi and an Ogon being mated. The fish shines like pure gold.


It is an orange Hikarimono which was first bred in 1956




It is red Hikarimono. The points for appreciating Plati-num Ogon and Hi-Ogon are the same as those of the Ogon.

It is especially important that their heads are clear and their scales have shiny trimmings.

Kin-Matsuba (Matsuba-Ogon), Gin-Matsuba

Kin Matsuba
Kin Matsuba

In 1960 Mr. Eizaburo Mano bred a Kin-Matsuba by mating a Matsuba with an Ogon Every scale is brilliantly embossed. The Matsuba with platinum texture is “Gin-Matsuba”

Gin Matsuba
Gin Matsuba
Matsuba Ogon doitsu
Matsuba Ogon doitsu


It is the Ogon of the Doitsu family.


Platinum Doitsu Leather Carp
Platinum Doitsu Leather Carp

It is the Platinum-Ogon of the Doitsu family

Platinum Doitsu mirror carp
Platinum Doitsu mirror carp


Orange Doitsu Ogon
Orange Doitsu Ogon

It is the Orange-Ogon of the Doitsu family


mizuho ogon
mizuho ogon


It is the Orange-Ogon with shiny black scales on the back.

Kin-Kabuto, Gin-Kabuto


A hoe-shaped pattern shines golden or silver on the head of a black carp.  Scales on the black body have golden or silver trimmings.

It is rubbish of the Ogon, Most of these kind are culled and thrown away.

Kinbo, Ginbo

Kinbo ogon

These are also rubbish of the Ogon. Their back shine golden or silver on black texture.

What is an Ogon Koi?

Ogon koi are a single solid colour with a metallic appearance. This variety is very popular, particularly with those new to keeping koi.

These fish can be a variety of attractive colours. Cream specimens are rare and the most popular choices are bright yellow (Yamabuki Ogon) and Platinum (Purachina Ogon).

What is a ghost koi?

Ghost Koi has human face! … A cross between a Koi carp and a wild-type mirror carp, Ghost koi are known for their hardiness, big appetites and, above all, growth. But a Koi is only worth what someone will pay for it – and for a Ghost koi even less.

Learn more about different types of koi 

If you want to buy ogon koi fish and other types of koi fish click koi fish for sale philippines




koi fish anatomy

koi fish anatomy Name of the parts of a koi

Koi anatomy diagram. Here is the basic external anatomy of a koi, including fins, operculum, lateral line, barbels and more

The external anatomy of Koi includes the scales, skin, fins, operculum (gill cover), vent, eyes, nostrils, barbels and lateral line. A koi’s skin is covered by a layer of mucus, which not only offers protection against disease but also helps streamline the fish to aid locomotion.

  1. Morphology

The koi belongs to Cyprinus, Cyprinae, Cyprinidae, Cyprinina. Cyprinida. Teleosteri, Teleostomi, Osteichthyes. Its distinctive features are two pairs of mustaches, three rows of pharyngeal teeth and a dental formula of 1. 1. 3-3, 1. 1. Its technical name is Cyprinus Carpio Linne. It is called “Carp” in English.

Natural black carp. improved and cultured Shinshu and Yamatogoi, Doitsugoi and colorful Nishikigoi are all included in one species from the scientific point of view.

The koi has pectoral, ventral, dorsal, caudal and anal fins which are important organs of locomotion. The pectoral and ventral fins are equivalent to the hands and legs of a human being.

A fin consists of hard spines, soft filaments, and membrane. The dorsal fin has three spines, twenty filaments. The anal-fin has three spines and five filaments. The ventral fin has nine filaments, both the pectoral and caudal fins are made of many filaments.

The fin regenerates it is cut.

koi fish anatomy Name of the parts of a koi
Fig. 3-1 Name of the parts of a koi


koi fish anatomy Form of a koi
Fig 3-2 Form of a koi

The koi has two pairs of mustaches which are sense organs when it seeks food among the mud.

Dotted scales line along the center of the side from head to tail. Those dots are regarded as openings of the Lateral line organ and also sense organs to perceive sounds.

The kois body is covered by the cuticle which consists of two layers; the epidermis and the derm. The epidermis contains mucilage cells and secretes mucus on the surface of the body. The slime protects the surface or prevents parasitic worms from staying.

The derm consists of fibrous materials with some cells in between. The scales differentiate, and nerves and blood vessels run in it. It also contains pigment cells which are indispensable to the Nishikigoi. Its complex shade is produced by contraction and diffusion of four kinds of pigment cells are Melanosphore (black) Xanthphore (yellow) Erythrophore (red) and Guanophore (white0

The sense organ and the nervous system have a relationship with contraction and diffusion of the pigment cells. The react sensitively to light. They are found between the epidermis and the subcutaneous fat tissue, and under the scales.

koi fish anatomy kind and form of koi
Fig 3-3 Kind and form of koi


The scale is thought to have differentiated from the derm. It is inserted into the derm at an angel. It is round and thin. Its surface is smooth. A clear pattern is seen on it from the center of the pattern striae spread radiately and crossing them, many protuberant lines draw concentric circles. These concentric increase, as a koi grows up like the rings of a tree. By counting the circles an approximate age of a koi is know.

After soaking a scale in 3-5% solution of potassium by droxide for twenty-four hours and washing it with water you can see the pattern under a microscope.

koi fish anatomy enlarged photo showing koi fish scale of over 100 of age
Fig. 3-4
Enlarged photo showing koi fish scale of over 100 years of age (A) Hanako (B)

2. Organs

The koi has two pairs of mustaches of which epidermis contains sensory cells. They can tell the taste and help the koi seek food in the mud.

The jaw has no teeth but developed pharyngeal teeth break food. They are in three rows; 1.1,3-3m 1.1. Behind the tongue there are five pairs of Saiko. Inside four pairs of those five, Saiha line like the teeth of a comb.  The gill covers them. There are eighteen Saiha, each of which has fifteen processes. They leach out plankton from the water. A wide but short esophagus is connected to them. There are vertical wrinkles in it and an opening to the air bladder on one side of it. The ko has no stomach, but the esophagus is directly connected to the intestines. They are about five times as long as the body and are coiled twice in the abdomen. A part of the intestines just after the esophagus is slightly swollen, which has a secreting gland of digestive fluid. The part works as a stomach. In the case of the koi, only one organ functions both as a liver and a pancreas. On its right side, there is a dark green gallbladder which is connected to the liver with a thin pipe. A spleen is surrounded by all the internal organs.

The air bladder is on the side of the koi’s back and has two ventricles. It is also connected to the internal ears by deformed vertebrae.

Inside the gill cover, there are five pairs of Saiko, of which four have red gill filaments for respiration. A net of capillaries spreads all over the gill filaments.

The koi’s heart is wrapped by the pericardium, having an atrium, a ventricle, and artery.

In front of the anal fin there is an anus to which the rectum, the ureter and the gonads are connected. In the gonads spermatozoa or ova are produced.

3. Physiology

The koi is a Temperate Zone fish and lives in fresh water. An extent of suitable temperature for it is from 8 degrees Centigrade to 30 degrees Centigrade. Therefore it can live everywhere in Japan. However, it is easily affected by rapid change of water temperature. If the temperature falls more than 5 degrees centigrade, the koi is covered with white membrane, that is a symptom of cold. If the water temperature is below 7 degrees centigrade, it is in hibernation down in deep water. It can live at 2 or 3 degrees centigrade, but is frozen to death below the temperature. Therefore in the areas where pond water freezes, some apparatuses for wintering should be installed.

Originally the koi is a freshwater fish, but it can also live in slightly salty water. 1% of salt is allowable, so it can be kept together with the sea beam if it is acclimated to the salty water.

Food for the baby koi is the first crustacean such as Daphnia. As it gradually grows up it can eat aquatic insects, shellfish or buds of water plants. As the koi is omnivorous it eats everything. It takes a bite of food or clings to mud to seek it. It disgorges what is has once swallowed. As it has no teeth on the jaws, it chews food with developed pharyngeal teeth. Usually, a male koi attain maturity in two years and a female ko in three years. The koi spawns once a year. The spawning season is from April till June. A koi spawns only once. The spawning time is from about 4 o’oclock in the morning tilld awn. Some ko spawn once and again after a month they lay eggs which have been left before The fertilizaton is external. The egg is adhesive and its shape is spherical. The size of an egg depends on its mother’s size. It’s diameter if from 2.1milimeters to 2.6 millimeters. The egg is colorless, but the first egg is light yellow. 200,00 to 400,000 eggs are spawned at a time. The higher the water temperature is, the quicker the eggs are hatched. In general, it takes about four days for eggs to be hatched at about 20 degrees centigrades.

The koi’s growth differs with water temperature, bait, and sex. There is no other animal that grows so irregularly, only in half a year, the fastest growing koi becomes ten times as long as and a thousand times as heavy as the slowest one. Table 3-1 shows the average growth rate. Generally, the male koi is slender and the female is round. Till two years old the male grows more than the female, but later it is vice versa.

The span of the koi’s life is comparatively long. Average length is seventy years. The koi’s age can be estimated by examining a scale under microscope. The oldes koi scientifically admitted was a Higoi “Hanako” which Mr. Komei Koshihara owned in Higashi-shirakawa of Gifu prefecture, unfortunately, She died i July 17, 1977. She was 77 centimeters long and 9 kilograms in weight

There is a report of a Nishikigoi with long fins which was bred after a koi and a crucian carp being mated.

There are many kinds of congenital malformation. The writer has once seen a dorsal fin on a fry’s side. A showa with three tails has been reported. The writer has also seen an Ogon and a Kohaku shaped as a Ryukin (goldfish) but larger than it. They had fine mustaches, too. Perhaps they are a cross breed of koi and goldfish.

The color of the Nishikigoi depends on the pigment cells in the derm. The color can be finished well by bait containing carotenoid.

It happens that koi’s color suddenly disappears, but its cause has not been found yet.

koi fish anatomy height and weight relative to age of koi fish
Table 3-1
Height and weight relative to age

If you want to buy our beatiful koi fish Buy it here koi fish for sale philippines

differenty types of kohaku and genealogy history 2019

types of koi kohaku koi

kohaku koi different types of kohaku you need to know 2019

In this article. I am discussing about different types of kohaku koi fish variety and its genalogy history.

What are the kohaku koi fish ancestors and how they got their coloration and patterns that we see today.

kohaku koi definition

A koi fish variety that has a white skin and a red pattern is defined as a Kohaku koi.kohaku koi

The kohaku koi is a representative class of the Nishikigoi.

Though its color is plain only white and red.

It reminds all the Japanese of their national flag of Japan.

In the koi world, there is a saying, “Keeping the Nishikigoi begins with the Kohaku and ends with the Kohaku.

First people are attracted by the beauty of the Kohaku koi and charmed by the Showa or the Ogon.

But finally, they go back to the Kohaku koi again.

That means that Kohaku koi is the prototype of the Nishikigoi.

Kohaku koi Origin

It was around 1800 that a red and white koi appeared for the first time.

red and white koi fish

By mutation, a koi with red cheeks called “Hookazuki” was born from a black carp.

Hookazuki koi fish

Then a white koi was born from “Hookazuki”

white koi
white koi

The white koi being mated with a Higoi, a white koi with Hi markings was breed and called “Hara-aka” (red Belly)”.

white koi higoi or red koi hara aka red belly

Later kois with Hi markings on the gill covers “Era-Hi (Red gills)” were breed.

Era-Hi (Red gills)
Era-Hi (Red gills)

Later than 1830 a “Zu-kinkaburi” whose head is partly red, a “Menkaburi” whose whole head is red.


A “Menkaburi” whose whole head is red, a “Kuchi-beni of which lips are red

Kuchi-beni koi fish

An a “Sarasa” which has red and white markings on the back were breed.

Sarasa kohaku koi fish

In the Meiji era Kohakus spread all over Yamakoshi and were improved.

It was by Gosuke of Utogi that so-called modern Kohaku was breed.

Utogi is a part of Ojiya City now. His real name was Kunizo Hiroi.

He mated a male koi of the cherry blossom pattern with a female which had a redhead.

A Tomouemon inherited Gosuke’s excellent Kohaku and Yagozen and Buheita followed him.

Kohaku Pattern

Good white texture is the most important element in the case of the Kohaku.

It must not be yellowish or brownish but should be snow white.

Dark but bright Hi is Preferable.

There are two kinds of Hi one’s base is purple and the other base is yellowish brown.

The former Hi is darker and does not fade away easily but unrefined.

To learn more about other types of koi click here types of koi

Kohaku is one of the most beautiful koi with its pure white body and intense-red patterns.

The white cannot have a yellow tint, it must be snow-white, and the
Hi (red) must be consistent, evenly colored, without thin, discolored spots. Red is not desirable on the fins.

The edge of the red pattern must be sharp and clear against the white background (this edge is called “kiwa”).

The red pattern should be artistically well-balanced.
One of the most important factors to be considered is the body conformation.

Don’t choose a Kohaku simply because it has a beautiful pattern.

Poor body conformation is usually a result of more serious internal
problems that will eventually result in health problems.

Photos from

Straight Hi Kohaku

kohaku koi Straight Hi Kohaku

Nidan Kohaku

Nidan Kohaku koi

Nidan: two step pattern. Two islands of red color that are not interconnected.

Sandan Kohaku

Sandan Kohaku koi

Sandan: three step pattern. (Yondan – four step, Godan – five step, etc.)

Yondan Kohaku

Yondan kohaku koi

Godan Kohaku

Godan Kohaku koi

Inazuma Kohaku

Inazuma kohaku koi

Tancho Kohaku

tancho kohaku koi

Kuchibeni Kohaku

Kuchibeni kohaku koi

Menkaburi Kohaku

Menkaburi kohaku koi

Maruten Kohaku

Maruten Kohaku koi

Omoyo Kohaku

Omoyo kohaku koi

Straight Hi kohaku koi fish for sale Straight Hi kohaku koi fish for sale Straight Hi kohaku koi fish for sale

Omoyo: one step pattern. A continuous, large, unbroken pattern from head to tail.Straight Hi: Single, continuous Hi pattern, but the red patches are interconnected.

Watch Video here

Ginrin Kohaku

Ginrin kohaku koi
Kohaku come in hundreds of patterns. Some of the more recognized ones are:

– by patterns on the body:

Inazuma: pattern resembling a lightning strike; zig-zag pattern.

– by markings on the head:
Tancho: Pure white body with a single roundish red marking on the head between the eyes
(with no other red on the body).
Kuchibeni: red lipstick-like markings, red (beni) on the mouth.
Menkaburi: “hood” pattern – going behind, below the eyes often to the mouth.
Maruten: “crown” on the head pattern – a red mark on the head (similar to Tancho) but with red patterns
on the rest of the body too.

Kohaku are sensitive to water conditions. In hard water they will develop small black freckles (called “shimi”) on the skin.

Softer water will prevent shimi from forming and will also
contribute to the development of the red (beni).

In very young koi the red starts out as a pale yellow and, in time, it changes to orange and later to red.

Males tend to develop the red faster than females, but their color also tends to diminish faster.

Females might take longer to develop the red but their colors will
last longer, this aspect making them more desirable among the hobbyists.

Kohaku There are fundamental points to look for in a kohaku. Pattern for the head, body, the tail, and the fins.

A red marking is indispensable for the head, even if it has beautiful
patterns on the body, a koi without a head Hi will be amoung the first culled.

The ideal shape of the head Hi is a large U spreading over the head,
a head Hi which spreads all over the head is not preferable.

The mouth region should be white, the Hi which spreads down to
the lips, and not covering the cheeks and jaws is also disliked.

The ideal end line of the head Hi is the nose line, and at least down to the eyes.

A head Hi that is neither too large nor too small is preferable.

The head Hi should not spread down to the mouth tip, if it is split in some place, no mouth Hi is acceptable.

The head Hi must not cover the eyes, jaws, and cheeks, but must be as large as possible.

The back should have a pattern well-balanced on both sides. A large mark on the shoulders near the head makes a Kohaku look imposing.

A V shaped white cut on the shoulders is desirable. A continuous pattern from the head to shoulders without any cuts looks dull.

The distance between the last Hi and the tail joint should be about 2cm.

As the fish grows larger, this distance increases, the last Hi spreading
over the tail is disliked, no fins should have Hi.

The skin should be snow white, the Hi deep, each pattern is
different but should show a clean cut edge.

The Kohaku should look imposing, elegant and the pattern well balanced.

The basic factors of Kohaku are, Bright Hi, Sharp pattern edges, no
Hi over the eyes and fins, no Hi markings spreading below the
lateral line, head Hi that does not spread below the nose, and tail Hi that does not spread over the caudal fin.


Kohaku Koi are the most popular Koi in Japan. Kohaku, Sanke and Showa Koi are called the “Gosanke” which means “The Three Families.” In the United States, “Gosanke” Koi are often referred to as “The Big Three.”

Kohaku are white bodied koi with red markings (sometimes more orange than red)…

Ideally the white of the body is like fine porcelain in color, with the
red well-demarcated (not “bleeding”). Red is undesirable on the fins,
and unless specified in a particular sub-variety, not below the eyes or on the mouth.

Several “sub-varieties”, designator terms are utilized with Kohaku type koi:

By Hi: “He”, Red Patterns on the Body:

Straight Hi: Pattern like meandering islands of red that are interconnected.

Inazuma: Interconnected red pattern looking “Like a Lightning Bolt”.

Nidan (Ni is two in Japanese): Two Step pattern. Two islands of red color that are not interconnected.

Sandan (San is three in Japanese): Three Step pattern. Three islands of red color that are not interconnected.

Yondan (Yon is four in Japanese): Four Step pattern. Four islands of red color that are not interconnected.

By Red Markings on the Head:

Kuchibeni: “Lipstick”; with red on the oral lobes.

Menkaburi: With “A Hood on the head”. Going behind, below the eyes often to the mouth.

Maruten: With a “Crown on the head”. A reddish mark, though with more red on the body.

Tancho: With a “Red Sun” marking on head, and lacking other red on the body. Best if the “spot” is bright red, w/o bleeding color, and circular, centered on the head.

Koh-haku koi are the cornerstone of any serious koi collection.

They are fairly simple in appearance, with red markings on a white body.

But simplicity aside, this is undeniably the most important and
most fundamental koi variety.

Koh-haku form the root breeding stock of many other varieties,
and they commonly win the “grand champion” award at prestigious koi shows.


It is said “appreciation of koi starts and ends with Kohaku”. What that means is Kohaku was the first class to be bred consistently or stabilized in about 1890.

It also means that after a person has studied all of the classes of koi and has become experienced, they
will come back to appreciate Kohaku for its simplicity and beauty.

I will keep the amount of Japanese terminology to a minimum in this lecture.

A Japanese term dictionary will be available soon in KOIUSA magazine and on the AKCA website.

Before I continue on Kohaku, I want to take a minute to discuss judging points common to all classes.

Koi are judged as a whole or holistically and are not judged on a positive or negative point system.

Negative points can come into play in close contests.

Koi are judged side by side based on what we see today and not what may be there next week or next year.

Japanese Judges have a disadvantage in often being able to
recognize bloodlines, which can cloud their “judge for today”
decisions because they know which koi cost more and has more potential.

A Japanese Judge once answered a question on why a koi won an
award replying, “because it was the most expensive fish”.

Koi may lose today only to come back to win tomorrow based on the competition tomorrow.

First, the koi cannot be missing anything like a fin or have any
abnormalities like a pushed in mouth all of which will disqualify the koi from judging.

The exception is the second set of barbels.
Second the koi must be healthy and not show signs of disease or
parasites, which could disqualify the koi from judging.

An exception is made for split fins or bruises judged to be caused during transportation.
Third, is the importance of body conformation.

Broad, thick body shape of female koi is preferred giving an
imposing appearance when compared to the thin trout shaped body of a male koi.

Shape and size of the fins are important to be in proportion to the body.

The head shape is important that it not be too short or too long or turn to one side.

The koi when viewed from above should be symmetrical on both sides and not have one side flatter than the other.

Even the way a koi swims is taken into account on conformation.

Not all female koi hold their eggs well, which could affect conformation.

Fourth, in my opinion is quality of skin and deep, vibrant colors, which makes koi “living jewels”.

This also includes how well the koi is “finished”, are all of the colors up, and is there a good sheen on the skin.

It is conformation and quality that will catch a Judges eye from a distance.

Fifth is pattern that is artistically balanced and not front, tail or side heavy.

Pattern must also be proportional to the size of the koi and not have
a small pattern on a huge body or a huge pattern on a small body.

Last is uniqueness or character usually of the pattern on the head that makes this koi special.

Now for Kohaku.

We have a snow white (shiro) base color with a red (hi) pattern. The pattern may be stepped or continuous. The white must be without blemish or yellow tint.

The hi may be any one of the many hues from deep persimmon
orange to Ferrari red but the red must be thick without any thin
spots and the pattern must be the same color from head to tail.

Some Judges prefer the persimmon orange hi to the Ferrari red
because the orange appears soft and the purple red appears hard and gaudy.

Kohaku must have red pattern on the head.
The pattern on the body must be artistically balanced and the kiwa
or rear edges of each spot must be sharp like cut with a razor.

A new bias in Japan has started to favor bloodlines that have the
kiwa stop at the edge of each scale forming a scalloped edge rather
than a straight edge across the center of a scale.

The front edge of each spot (not on the head) may have blurred red color that is called “sashi” or insertion.

Sashi indicates the koi is still improving in quality and is not finished yet.

It is elegant if a Kohaku has a white nose and a white area with no
red pattern just in front of the tail called a “tail stop” and several other names.

Some subtleties of pattern not liked are a totally red head or red
down the face to the nose that are heavy in appearance.

Red pattern wrapping below the lateral line suggests a future koi
when the red and white are better balanced.

Red spots below the lateral line are disliked. The lateral line is a raised sensory organ running the full length of a koi half way up the side of a koi.

A red head pattern with an additional red lip mark is called
“kuchibeni” and can be cute if it balances the overall pattern.

Red pattern at the base of the pectoral fin was considered
unfavorable but is being accepted now if it adds to the overall balance of the pattern.

Red into the tail or into the dorsal fin is still disliked.
Kohaku tend to get black specks “shimis” in hard water with high pH.

How many types of koi fish are there?

Types of Koi Varieties. There are over a 100 different types of koi (Nishikigoi).

Can you have koi fish in a tank?

Keep koi in large aquariums for a few months at a time. If you live in an apartments, you may have to keep koi in aquariums for their entire life.

That is possible, as long as you do not overcrowd the aquarium with too many koi. … Your tank should have 1 cubic foot per 1 inch of koi fish length.

kohaku meaning

What does the name kohaku mean?

Kohaku (琥珀 Kohaku) is the Japanese word for amber, and a Japanese name.

You have it halfway right, halfway wrong 🙂 琥珀 is THE kanji writing for the word “kohaku,” meaning, amber. If you want the meaning “amber,”

showa koi fish

showa koi fish Hi Showa


A koi with Hi and white markings on black skin is defined as “Showa-Sanshoku” The joints of its pectoral fins are black (Fig. 4-24)

showa koi fish
Fig 4-24


The Showa-Sanshoku was bred by Mr. Jukichi Hoshino by mating a Ki-Utsuri and a Kohaku in 1927. Hi color of the first Showa-Sanshoku was yellowish brown. Mr. Tomiji  Kobayasi succeeded in producing real red Hi by using a Yagozemon-Kohaku. Then it has become one of the best kinds.


Hi markings

It is necessary to have a big Hi marking on the head. Hi should be uniform and dark Its edge must be clear.

White markings

About 20% of white is desirable. The color should be snow white

White marking are necessary on the head, the tail joint and the back.

Sumi markings

There are two basic patterns the pattern of which Sumi divides the head Hi into two (Fig. 4-25) and that of which Sumi draws V on the head and which has

showa koi fish
Fig. 4-25

a marking on the nose (Fig. 4-26). The former is the original type. The latter is more impressive than the former.

showa koi fish
Fig 4-26

The pattern of Sumi on the body should be large lighting shaped or mountain-shaped

The pectoral fins should have Sumi at their joints. They must not be plain white or black. They must not have Hi Stripes, either.

Distinctive features of the Taisho-Sanke and the Showa-Sanshoku

Both the Taisho-Sanke and the Showa-Sanshoku are tricolor white, black and red. The former has red and black markings on white skin, but the latter has red and white markings on black skin. The following items are the distinctive features.

  1. The Taisho-Sanke does not have Sumi on the head but the Showa-Sanshoku does.
  2. Sumi of the Taisho-Sanke’s trunk stay on the back, but that of the Showa-Sanshoku’s trunk spread over the abdomen.
  3. Pectoral fins of the Taisho-Sanke are white or striped. but those of the Showa-Sanshoku have Sumi at their joints. It is easy to distinguish one from the other by these features. If you are an expert koi keeper. You will tell the difference by examining the quality of Sumi, because that of these two koi is completely different



Every Sumi scale the Showa-Sanshoku looks relieved clearly, but Sumi of the Boke Showa is blurred and light.


It is the Showa with a large Hi marking which spreads from head to tail.

showa koi fish Hi Showa
Hi Showa


It shows many white parts and looks like a Taisho-Sanke at a glance.

showa koi fish Kindai Showa
Kindai Showa


It is the Showa of the Doitsu family.

showa koi fish Doitsu Showa
Doitsu Showa

Koromo-Showa- Koromo

Kanoko-Showa- Kawarimono


Showa-Shusui- Kawarimono

Kin-Showa, Gin-Showa-Hikari-Utsuri




Learn more about types of koi

If you want to buy showa koi fish and other types of koi fish click koi fish for sale philippines link


sanke koi fish

sanke koi fish

Definition meaning for sanke koi fish

A koi with Hi and Sumi markings on white skin is defined as “Taisho-Sanke”. Its basic pattern is a Hi marking on the head and black stripes on the pectoral fins.  It is a representative class together with the Kohaku.

Sanke: White and red with black accents

• White, or shiroji (sheer-row-gee), is the base color on Sanke. It begins at the nose and continues to the tail, including the fins. It should be clean, bright and not discolored in any way.

• The red on Sanke is called hi (he) or beni (ben-ny) in Japanese. Beni tends to be more of an orange shade rather than a true, fire engine red. Sanke usually have large, reddish-orange patches that form the foundation of their color pattern, with the white base generally visible between the patches of beni.

• Black, or sumi (sue-me), is the rarest color on Sanke. Generally, Sanke will have black spots, or sumi markings, that are relatively small when compared to the prominent beni patches. Sumi can be thought of as an accent color, while beni and shiroji are the primary colors on Sanke.


It is not clear exactly when and how a tricolor black white and red koi had been bred, but it was found in the middle of the Meiji era. The first Sanke had black, white and red markings apart from one another all over the body and is distinguished from the present Taisho-Sanke. It ws Mr. Eizaburo Hoshino of Takezawa who bred the Taisho-Sanke with red and black markings on white skin.

Later it had been greatly improved and splendid Sankes as “Jinbei” “Torazo” and “Sadazo” were bred.


White skin The texture should be snow white.

Hi markings

Hi should be uniform and dark. Clear edges are important.

sanke koi fish

Fig 4-18

sanke koi fish

Fig 4-19

The head Hi should not spread over the eyes, jaws and cheeks. Hi should not cover the nose, either. A white part is necessary on the tail region. Symmetrical Hi pattern is desirable, Fins are not colored red.

Sumi markings

Excellent Sankes do not have Sumi on their heads. A big Sumi marking on the shoulder is important. It is very attractive (Fig-19). A Sumi marking on white skin is called “Tsubo-Sumi” (Fig. 4-20) and that on a Hi patch is “Kasame-Sumi” (Fig. 4-21). The Tsubo-Sumi markings are preferable.  It is the best that these Tsubo-Sumi markings appear symmetrically. Roundish Sumi markings look elegant. Sumi should not spread widely on the latter half of a body.


It is ideal that a fin has about three black stripes. A fin with fewer stripes looks more elegant than that with many stripes.

sanke koi fish



sanke koi fish

Fig. 4-21

sanke koi fish

Fig. 4-22

sanke koi fish

Fig. 4-23



It is a Taisho-Sanke of which red marking spreads from head to tail. It is impressive but lacks elegance

(Fig. 3-22)



It is the Taisho-Sanke of the Doitsu family of which origin is the mirror carp. The Aka-Sanke of the Doitsu family is called “Doitsu-Aka-Sanke”


It is the Taisho-Sanke with silver lumps on the head.


Kanoko-Sanke (Kawarimono)

Sanke-Shusui (Kawarimono)

Yamato-Nishiki (Hikarimonyo)

Kinginrin-Sanke (Kinginrin)

Tancho-Sanke (Tancho Fig. 4-23)

Learn more about types of koi 

Here’s an article from Koi net about Sanke Vs Showa

The Kohaku, Sanke and Showa varieties of koi are collectively known as the gosanke. In this case the “go” does not mean five, but refers to three noble Japanese families. The highest quality of skin and colour is to be found amongst the gosanke and for this reason grand champions are usually selected from these variet­ies. A Kohaku is a white koi with red pattern markings while Sanke and Showa are three coloured koi; red, black and white. Showa and Sanke appeal to all types of hobby­ists, especially those who want to show their koi and compete for top awards. It is not easy to raise a koi with three colours of high quality, but for those that can achieve this feat, there is the possibility of having a grand champion.

Hobbyists and even benching teams sometimes have difficulty in deciding whether a koi is a Sanke or a Showa. It is often said that a Sanke is a white koi with red and black pattern markings and a Showa is a black koi with red and white pattern markings. It is true that when breeding Showa the all black fry are kept at the first cull. However, this does not help to distinguish larger koi exhibiting all three colours.

In his book, Dr Takeo Kuroki referred to Mr Eziburo Hoshino as being the first to breed Sanke while Peter Waddington credits Mr Kawakami (Torazo) as being the first to breed Sanke in 1915. The Sanke variety has its ori­gins in the reign of the Japanese Emperor Yoshihito and the period of his reign (1912 —1926) was known as the Taisho era. Taisho means “great righteousness”. Sanshoku means three colours and the proper name for a Sanke is Taisho Sanshoku or Taisho Sanke, which is com­monly abbreviated to Sanke.

The proper name for a Showa is Showa Sanshoku and this variety was developed a little later in the Showa era of Emperor Hirohito 1926 —1989. Showa means enlight­enment and harmony. Jukichi Hoshino has been credited with breeding the first Showa in 1927 using a Ki Utsuri as one of the parents. These early Showa were of poor quality and it was not until Tomiji Kobayashi crossed Showa with Kohaku in the 1960’s that the high quality Showa we recognise today were created. learn more

What does Doitsu mean in Koi?

Doitsu refers to the scalation, or in this case lack of. Doitsu means scaleless or in some cases, scaleless body, but rows of oversized scales on the top and side of the koi

What are the different types of koi?

Most Popular Types of Koi for Shows
Taisho Sanke.
Utsuri mono.

Are butterfly koi real koi?

As Butterfly koi grow, they become more and more impressive because the fins keep growing until the blood vessels can’t sustain the fins to be any longer. … Butterfly koi seem to lack some of the body size of regular koi, but the overall fish can run as long as 36 to 40 inches in the right pond with plenty of food.

What type of fish are koi?

Koi fish is domesticated version of common carp. This fish is most famous by its beautiful colors that have been created via selective breeding. There are over 20 different varieties of koi fish that differ in color, patterns and type of scales.


Giobel Koi Center koi farm

giobel koi center koi farm

All our Koi are bred and raised in mud ponds at our farm in Tawagan Norte Labangan Zamboanga del sur. The mud and water chemistry in our  mud ponds is exactly the same as that of a Koi’s natural habitat which is rich in natural food and nutrients.

Our Koi Farm is situated on the fertile lands of Zamboanga peninsula, our mud pond is rich in minerals and clay our mud pond have underground spring water it is dug out exclusively for growing out our  Koi.

Our water supply is from the deep well, pumping out pristine mineral rich water to the ponds, essential for Koi development.

The mild Zamboanga peninsula climate which does not get too hot during the summer and also our place will not be hit by strong typhoon plus our mud pond have natural food for koi fish like daphnia, snails and duckweeds whic is ideal for growing out Koi.

All our Koi are hatched using natural breeding techniques.  Our koi fish breeders are Quality Koi parent stocks from Japan and is breed based on its variety to assure desired specific bloodlines.

Our koi fry are stocked in our mud ponds rich in phytoplankton and zooplankton, daphnia a natural and nutritious food for the tiny Koi.

By producing large quantities of Koi fingerlings, the exceptional Tategoi are segregated and grown separately to obtain truly beautiful Koi.

Giobel Koi Center Koi Farm hatches, grows and supplies a wide variety of quality Koi. Giobel Koi Center sells both wholesale and retail and ships Koi locally and near future worldwide.

These are top quality Koi produced from imported Japanese brood stock. Our Koi are available in a variety of sizes and colors.

We are looking forward to filling your pond with beautiful Japanese Nishikigoi!
  • The Breeding and Grow out farm is located in Purok Saranay, Tawagan Norte, Labangan Zamboanga del sur  where the mud ponds are rich in minerals and clay, the weather is ideal for growing out Koi and deep wells supplying mineral rich water to our ponds – all essential for Koi development.
  • To ensure healthy Kois we do not sell directly at our farm. All newly harvested Kois are conditioned and quarantined for a month at our farm facility before being transferred to our display tank and we also treated it with dimillin to make sure there are no argulus fish lice to our koi fish 

Giobel Koi Center Koi Farm location