Koi ponds are increasing in popularity. While you can choose various types of fishes for such ponds, koi fish is one of the most popular ones to keep in ponds. Besides, koi ponds are known to add serene beauty to homes. These fishes are usually much easier to raise, even for kids. Thus, they are a preferred breed to other fish species. Despite of ease, you may have to keep check on their health. Moreover, you will have to make sure that the habitat is appropriate for their survival. Whether you plan to breed them for business, or as a hobby, you will need to check the following tips to stock koi carefully in their respective ponds.
Moderate temperature conditions
You may require at least 1000 gallons of water for a koi pond. Also, you may need hardy plants, rocks, and smooth gravel in such a pond. These fishes can tolerate cold temperature moderately, so the pond will need to be constructed in a place with suitable temperature. While this species is able to manage through cold winters briefly, you may still need to find ways to keep the pond temperature regulated for them to survive. Similarly, you may have to control the temperature in hot summers as well. If you can manage this, while keeping the water quality hygienic, these fishes can reach up to 8 inches in just the first year.
Companionship and care
Koi have a much longer life than goldfishes. You can expect these to survive up to an average life of thirty years. Some have been even reported to survive more than 200 years. Thus, you are going to have to take care of them properly so that they are with you for many years to come. You will find that koi love companionship. They prefer each other’s company. In addition, and will love it when people feed them.
Koi also need proper supply of oxygen. Therefore, you should think of installing a nice fountain or waterfall in the pond to keep the water oxygenated for the fishes. Lack of oxygen may also result in the increase in the growth of ammonia in the water. This happens when the fishes excrete, resulting in the water becoming more polluted. In summers, this activity increases. You do not want the water to lose its oxygen due to the presence of impurities. Also, if you have plans for listing yourself on directories, etc. for koi then you can visit Zoomthelist.Com.
Ensure a functional filter
You also need to provide proper filtration in the pond. Proper water conditions for a longer time will only work if you have an operational filter system installed in the pond. Good filtration will help you remove the waste from the water bodies much faster.
Remember to use such methods to improve the condition of water for your breeding koi fishes. These fishes can survive for a long time if they have ideal conditions. Follow these tips and get the best out of your koi ponds.
Koi fish Yin and Yang have been for thousands of years already.
I think way back as far as 700 B.C.E during I Ching the book of changes a text Universal in its understanding.
It represents a dynamic balance of opposites and the process of unfolding events and change. Koi fish yin yang are like two opposite yet complementary energies.
Koi fish yin yang cannot exist without each other, they never are separated for example night and day form a koi fish yin yang
night looks and is very different than a day but it is impossible to have one without each other, both create a totality a complete whole.
koi fish color meaning chart
koi fish color meaning koi fish colors have meanings it represents certain fortune and success in life.
Kohaku this is a white koi with red markings and this symbolizes a success in your career
KumunryuThis is a Doitsu koi fish with black and white pattern that is unstable and changes all the time depending on temperature that is why kumonryu koi fish symbolizes life constant changes and transformations
Ogon This is a plain solid coloration koi fish usually plain silver, yellow, gold, white and orange, this represents success in your business. and wealth
Kuchibeni is a type of Kohaku with red markings in their mouth that looks like they have lipstick Kuchibeni represents love and long lasting relationships.
Yamabuki A Yambuki koi has golden bright colors and they are a symbol of riches and wealth.
ying yang koi fish tattoos
Koi Fish Meaning
The koi fish is a symbol with extremely deep meaning for those who choose it as part of their body art.
If you have been considering getting a tattoo that involves a koi fish, take the time first to learn the meaning associated with them.
The traditional significance of a koi fish tattoo can vary depending on the fish’s orientation (whether it is going up or down your body) and color. You want to be sure that your koi fish tattoo conveys the desired meaning.
Japanese Koi Fish Legend
A koi on a float during the Gion Festival in Kyoto representing the fish’s legendary struggle against all obstacles.
A koi on a float during the Gion Festival in Kyoto representing the fish’s legendary struggle against all obstacles. |
Koi fish have a very long history in Chinese and Japanese culture.
They were originally common carp and were later domesticated and bred to produce certain colors.
Chinese invaders brought koi to Japan, where the fish flourished.
Koi fish are prominent in the work of Japanese tattoo artists because of a long-standing legend of how the fish become dragons. Most of the meaning and symbolism behind the fish stems from this ancient legend.
How a Koi Became a Dragon
According to legend, any koi that is able to scale the waterfall known as “Dragon’s Gate” will be transformed into a dragon.
According to legend, any koi that is able to scale the waterfall known as “Dragon’s Gate” will be transformed into a dragon. | Source
According to Chinese and Japanese myth, there was once a giant school made up of thousands of koi fish swimming up the Yellow River in China. As they swam, they gained strength by pushing against the current.
However, on the Yellow River, there is a waterfall. Once the fish reached the waterfall, most turned back and just went with the current because it became too hard.
The ones who remained continued to try to reach the top of the waterfall. These koi kept trying for one hundred years. At last, one koi successfully leaped to the top of the waterfall.
To reward this dedicated koi, the gods turned it into a beautiful golden dragon.
The falls have become known as the “Dragon’s Gate.” And legend has it that to this day, any koi that has the strength and perseverance to complete to journey up Dragon’s Gate will become a heavenly dragon.
It is also said that if a koi is caught, it will await the cut of the knife without a quiver with the bravery of a Samurai warrior facing the sword in battle.
Here is another good article of ying yang koi fish tattoos
40 Yin Yang Koi Fish Tattoos For Men – Cosmic Force Ink Ideas
In Chinese and Japanese culture, the Koi fish has a deep history and symbolic meaning. They mark one of the rare instances of domesticated fish. Originally carp, they were bred for their rich colors.
Some believe, however, that long ago, they descended from dragons.
The story goes that once there was a huge school of fish made up of thousands of Koi swimming in the Yellow River in China. They went upriver, pushing against the current until they came to a waterfall. Many turned back, believing it was too difficult an obstacle.
Some koi, however, kept trying and trying to jump over it. They kept at it for hundreds of years until finally, one koi made it to the top. To reward his persistence and bravery, the gods of the river turned that fish into a golden dragon.
Today the waterfall is known as the dragon’s gate, and some believe that any fish that can jump it will still be transformed into a dragon.
When a koi fish is caught, it will not flop and try to flee. With the bravery of a samurai, it awaits the inevitable blade that will take its life.
Coupled with the ancient symbol of yin and yang—light and dark, balance in the universe—this tattoo is one of the most powerful and symbolic images known to man. People with this tattoo do not sit down and die, but remain persistent in all aspects of life. Win or lose, they stoically accept their fate as another turn of the wheel.
If you are bit scared in having a koi fish yin yang tattoo you might as well consider in wearing a koi fish yin yang necklace.
We have koi fish jewelry available here in our store Shop here koi jewelry
We have koi fish yin yang necklace and earrings available for sale too.
What is a koi fis yin yang and what does it mean?
koi fish meaning Definition of the Nishikigoi and its name
“Nishikigoi” is a general term for colored koi with markings which are bred for appreciation.
Before the second world war, it used to be called “Colored koi”, “Flowery koi” “Figured koi” or “Fancy koi”.
But the authorities did not approve of the words “Colored” or “Flowery” during the war, so it was renamed “Nishikigoi”
The word “koi” was first used about 2500 years ago in China.
It was in 533 B.C. when Confucius son was born and was presented as a fish by King Shoko of Ro.
The fish was named “Koi”
The original home of the koi was said to be Persia.
They were brought to Japan through China and Korea about 1000 years ago.
The colored koi, however, were born in Japan
They are work of Japanese art.
The Doitsu is a kind of the Nishikigoi which has breed for food.
Its origin was a black carp.
In Japan a Nishikigoi and a Doitsu were crossbreeds and a colored Doitsu was born.
The Nishikigoi is called “Living jewel” or “National fish”. It was Mr. Komei Koshihara, the president of Nagoya
women’s college, Who named the Nishikigoi “Living jewel” “National fish” was first used.
In a photo album of the First All Nippon Nishikigoi Show in 1968.
Mr. Hideo Miya of Ojiya was its inventor.
yin yang fish
The eye of each teardrop is symbolic of the constant watchful eye of the koi. This pairing of fish is often seen outside the context of the yin yang symbol as well.
In Japan, fish that are prepared for sashimi while still alive are called … Another dish, popular in China, is called “yin yang fish,
Yin Yang fish 陰陽魚 in Chinese cuisine is a dish which consists of a deep-fried whole fish that remains alive after cooking. The fish’s body is cooked while its head is wrapped in a wet cloth to keep it breathing. Wikipedia
how fast do koi fry grow this will depend on the temperature of the water the climate the faster they grow because warmer temperature stimulate their metabolism and this will trigger them to eat fast.
What do koi fish eggs look like?
Koi like to lay their eggs on pond plants, spawning mats, or spawning ropes. … Koi eggs are tiny and translucent.
They can range from milky white to yellow or green. After the next two days, the koi fish eggs will hatch
Here is a video of a koi fry growth chart watch it here
koi fry growth rate in the first week from hatching their sizes are about 1 cm and their koi fry color are all yellow yet.
you can watch this video of my 1-week old koi fry
how fast do baby koi grow to depend on the temperature, size of the pond and sources of live foods.
If you feed them daily with live foods they grow too fast also if your temperature is warmer they tend to feed more in warmer temperature because warm climate makes their metabolism fast, so they get hungry all the time.
koi eggs hatching depends on the temperature here in my place which is tropical and warm koi eggs hatch in 2 days in colder region koi eggs hatch for 7 to 10 days.
3-week old koi fry
what do baby koi fish look like It really depends on the stage for the first-week yellow, second week two colors appear black and yellow, third week 3 colors? If you want to see baby koi fish fry see my video below
1-Week Old Koi Fry Video
2-Week Old Koi Fry in our koi breeding
3-Week Old Koi Fry
4-Week Old Koi Fry Video
5-week old koi fry video
6-week old koi fry video
Here is the vidoe of my 7-week old koi fry now
Update of our koi fry today, they are now 8-week old koi fry, here’s a video below
Update today the koi fry are now 9-week old koi fry their number decreases because
I was not able to remove the tobi koi fry and last week also the water quality was degraded because some of the clams died and also their pooh increase already since they are growing to watch the video below
THE NATURE OF TOBI
Rain Garden Ornamentals
Anyone who breeds koi knows about tobi. In other species these are often called “shooters”.
They occur in goldfish spawns too. They are the fry that grow to juvenile size very quickly.
They are noted for eating their smaller siblings.
Most tobi koi do not have the refined characteristics the breeder is looking for, although some do.
I have never seen a good explanation of how and why tobi develop.
If anyone knows of an authoritative description, please let us know. Until then, I will give you my off-the-wall
theory about tobi.
I think tobi are hard to explain because there are two factors at work, genetics and blind luck.
Genetics: Koi and goldfish carry in their genetic code remnants of everything that come before.
A top-notch pair of gosanke or ranchu carries all the genetic material needed to make the ancestral common carp or crucian carp from which they were derived through selective breeding.
They also have all the genetic material needed to recreate the incremental steps in their evolution.
In the offspring from a pair of sanke you will find kohaku, higoi and perhaps even a magoi.
A group of ryukin offspring may include individuals with characteristics of wakin and common goldfish.
The more ancestral forms are always more hardy.
Left to their own devices and allowed to breed indiscriminately for many generations, a population of koi will revert
back to something resembling the ancestral common carp and goldfish will revert back to something resembling a crucian carp.
In a group of sibling fry, those with a more primitative genetic make-up will be just a little bit stronger and faster giving them a slight advantage when it comes time to eat or avoid a predator.
But, in the world of fish fry, a slight advantage can become amplified many fold.
There is a snowball effect. A fry that gets just a little bit bigger than its siblings is better able to
capture and compete for food so it grows faster.
The larger the size disparity, the bigger the advantage. So, over just a few weeks time an individual that is just slightly
larger than its siblings becomes ten times larger than its siblings.
At some point, the size disparity becomes so great that the larger individual can eat its siblings providing it
with a new limitless food supply.
The snow ball effect escalates. Blind Luck But, how can some tobi be excellent examples of highly refined koi or goldfish and show no signs of being a throw-back to an ancestral form?
I think it is because there is a blind luck factor at work as well.
Imagine a group of larvae which have absorbed their yolk sack and are ready to begin feeding.
Perhaps some arrive at this stage a few hours ahead of the rest because they were spawned first or their position on the spawning substrate was a fraction of a degree warmer then the rest, or because of some other factor.
The larvae instinctively dart at a moving food particle.
Some times they catch it and sometimes they miss.
They are growing extremely rapidly and catching one or two extra choice food morsels can make a difference in that growth rate.
Some individuals are just lucky and are able to get a tiny bit ahead of their siblings.
As described above, a very small advantage can quickly snowball into a large advantage.
An individual with no innate genetic advantage can become a tobi just through bind luck.
Another Observation In some batches of fry the size distribution is large and there is an unusually large number of tobi.
In other batches the size distribution is narrow and the siblings look almost identical.
In general, the better the fry are fed the less variation there will be in their size.
If abundant live food can be kept in front of the fry at all times while maintaining good water quality, there is a much lower incidence of tobi.
Under the best of conditions the growth of fry is phenomenal and most of the population (except for those with serious deformities) has the potential to grow at the rate of tobi.
The best way to minimize the number of tobi is to provide better nutrition and husbandry.
The biggest and best koi and goldfish will have had the best nutrition and water quality their entire lives.
Periods of less than optimal conditions can have long-term effects.
In extreme cases, we say that the fish is stunted.
The younger the fish, the more severe and lasting the effect of poor nutrition and water quality.
Tobi are considered by most to be undesirables.
If they are genetic throw-backs then they probably are undesirable. However, you should be on the look-out for those fish
which have both the genetic potential to meet your selection criteria and the good luck to have gotten off to a fast start in life and become a tobi.
It is always a good idea to separate tobi if you can; especially if they have become large enough to be cannibals.
But, do not automatically assume they have no potential.
So, you’ve decided you want a koi pond in your backyard. Congratulations, it’s a great decision. Ponds aren’t just for keeping fish such as koi in, but they can also encourage other nature into your garden, provide a stunning focal point for visitors to admire and offer a source of relaxation – who doesn’t love closing their eyes and hearing nothing but the sound of trickling water as your very own pond babbles away not far from your back door?
With the decision taken to construct a pond, the big question is, what is your pond going to look like and where in your backyard is it going to go? Here are the factors you need to consider when designing a pond.
Decide on the style of your pond
When her home in West Village, New York needed a refresh, actress Julianne Moore hired professional landscaper Brian Sawyer to redesign her garden. Thankfully, you don’t need to source a professional with a Guaranteed Scholarships in Garden Design to help you decide on the style of your pond. When it comes to a pond housing fish, the most common designs are a formal shape, raised up and near to the house so that you can see your fish swimming around in all their splendor.
Consider the safety aspects
Arguably the most important factor to consider when it comes to designing a pond is the safety aspect. We’ve all read horror stories about young children accidentally walking or falling into ponds with terrible consequences. A raised pond can prevent that happening by providing a physical barrier between child and water. It also offers an edge to sit on, which can be handy if you want to relax in the garden or if the pond is for somebody elderly who may need to sit down while working on the pond. If you are still worried about the potential of a child falling in, then you can purchase a pond cover or netting. This will also protect your fish from any urban animals that may see them as an easy lunch.
Think about the electricity supply
Most likely, your pond is going to require a filter and pump while many of us will also want to install fountains or waterfalls. All of these require electricity to work. That can have a bearing on the positioning of your koi pond, as you are going to need it to be relatively close to a mains supply, which will probably come from a building. You should always use and consult a qualified electrician, especially when dealing with electricity and water.
Check the positioning of underground services
Your pond is going to require at least some digging down, so you need to check that it isn’t going to be situated above any water pipes, sewage pipes of electric cables. The last thing you want when you start constructing it is to cut through any of those three utilities.
Avoid siting your pond in the shade
There are several reasons for avoiding putting your koi pond in the shade. The most obvious is that if it is situated under trees, then come fall it’s going to fill up with fallen leaves which will be a nightmare to remove. If you want flowers to bloom among the water, then you’ll need to choose a position which receives sunlight for around six hours a day.
Giving a child a goldfish can be an excellent way to teach responsibility. Once your children are a bit more mature, you can introduce them to koi fish. Although koi require more care than goldfish, they are also more versatile, and they can be placed indoors or outdoors. Use latch hook hairstyles or another extra special treat to reward your child for a job well done. You will be happy to learn that your kids are capable of caring for your koi fish once you teach them how to do things correctly. Here is the best way to get kids to care for their koi.
Ask Your Kids to Demonstrate
Setting up and maintaining a koi pond can be fun, so your children will want to get hands on right away. After the koi are safely placed in their aquarium or pond, you can have your kids show you that they know what to do. Have them feed the koi while you stand back and observe. When it comes time to clean out the pond or tank, give your children the tools and supervise them as they set out to work. As long as the responsibilities you give them are age appropriate, your children will impress you with how well they take charge.
Make Them Responsible for a Set Period of Time
When kids are old enough to be home alone for a period of time, they’re definitely big enough to take care of their own koi. Add koi care responsibilities on your children’s chore chart so they know what to do. This can mean that they need to check the koi pond’s water temperature every morning, or that they will need to feed their koi every day after school. Give them some responsibility but check up on them so that their koi are guaranteed to stay healthy. After a while, you can trust your kids to be responsible and you can even consider rewarding them with a funky hairstyle, like a mohawk or crochet braids.
Quiz Them on Their Koi Knowledge
After you have seen your kids feed their koi, clean out the tank, and check on their fish, you need to do just one more thing to ensure that they are fully responsible. Quiz your children on their knowledge of koi to see if they’ve got all the facts down right. Ask them about what water temperatures are safe for koi, how much food they should feed their fish, and what they should do if they see their koi are sick. Some of their answers might surprise you, but overall you can expect them to get the majority correct.
Koi fish live for a long time if they are cared for well, so your kids can grow up with a family pet that sticks around for decades. Get them started early so that they can care for their koi fish, even when you aren’t at home. As their fish grow larger and their collection becomes even more vast, they will get to know their koi on a personal level.
Metronidazole is an antibiotic (for anaerobic bacteria) and anti-protozoal medication used to treat various conditions internally and externally in fish.
As for Anaerobic bacteria, these are bacterium that thrive in environments in which there is little oxygen (anaerobic environments) and can cause disease in such environments as the intestinal tract and liver.
Metronidazole belongs to a class of antibiotics known as nitroimidazoles which work by ceasing the growth of bacteria and protozoa.
Metronidazole works by selectively blocking some of the functions within the bacterial cells and some parasites resulting in their death.
Metronidazole is metabolized in the liver (whether a fish or a human).
Metronidazoles primary use is for the treatment of ANAEROBIC gram positive & SOME negative bacteria including those that produce beta-lactamase.
However, it is not effective against aerobic bacterium. This means Metronidazole is a poor choice for suspected
bacterial diseases in open heavily oxygenated aquariums/ponds such as Columnaris,
while it is an excellent choice for diseases of the low/no oxygen environment of the intestinal tract or other internal
suspected bacterial pathogens (generally used ina fish food soak for best results).
Metronidazole may be a good choice for any bacterial disease present in low oxygen, high bio-load aquariums or ponds.
As well Metronidazole is effective for some protozoa.
It was originally found effective for the management of infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis.
For fish applications Metronidazole has been shown to be in particular more effective for internal and external flagellates.
Metronidazole is also sometimes effective for other protozoan parasite infections, especially for
Cryptocaryon in marine aquaria as well as Hexamita & Ichthyophthirius.
Metronidazole is often recommended for disease in Cichlids which is often thought to be caused by Hexamita,
HOWEVER there is considerable evidence that the cause of “Hole in the Head” is simply the lack of Calcium and even positive calcium ions.
This is especially common in aquariums utilizing water softened using sodium chloride or potassium chloride to drive out hard water minerals.
Use of such water should be ceased prior to using Metronidazole and as well, the use of products such as Wonder
Shells mineral blocks should also be used first before treating with Metronidazole (or combined).
Due to Metronidazoles effectiveness against anaerobic bacteria by selectively blocking some of the cell functions of
anaerobic bacteria, Metronidazole along with Neomycin is a good choice for bloating of the digestive tract (common in goldfish).
Metronidazole selectively blocks some of the cell functions in anaerobic bacteria, resulting in their demise.
Metronidazole is also effective used in combination (such as with Praziquantel) or by itself for internal parasites such as Nematodes or Trematodes.
In marine aquarium infections is where Metronidazole really shines as it is very effective internally and since Marine
fish are always drinking the water around them, medication is easily transported to the infected area.
In Freshwater, treatment can be improved by soaking food as well and this is still an effective freshwater treatment as well.
7 days is a minimum treatment time indicated by the author. Instructions for treating with Metro for Hexamita
typically suggest 7-10 days, and if you read National Fish Pharmacy instructions for their Metro, they indicate 10 days period, nothing less.
Instructions vary and most instructions for treating with Metro indicate repeating dose every 24 hours with a 25% water change before treatment.
Part of the reason for the water change is to help reduce the flagellites that are expelled in the feces into the water.
A study at the University of Florida on Hexamita in Angelfish and treatment methods showed daily 25% water changes were almost as effective at reducing the amount of Hexamita in the intestines of affected fish as the metro.
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) can also carry your pond through a brief power outage.
They are available at most office supply or computer retail stores.
The UPS works by providing the necessary current via a battery.
The battery remains charged by being plugged into the wall outlet.
This means that your pond will not flinch even a little bit when the power goes off, as it is will not be powered by line electricity.
The UPS will last longer if used to power small pumps or air pumps with low current consumption.
The larger circulation pumps will usually run only a few minutes.
3.Finally, if you live in an area where power outages are more common, you may want to consider a gasoline-powered generator.
The downside to generators is that they can be expensive, noisy, and rather heavy.
However, they can keep your pond (and also your home appliances) going throughout an extended power outage.
An important safety tip: DO NOT feed your koi fish during a power outage unless it is absolutely necessary, as it will cause pollutants and algae to build up faster. Most fish can go 5 to 7 days without being fed.
4.Tap water-Ancost-effectiveective way is to let your tap water to run continuously until the electricity is back on. Only thing is to monitor the chlorine level from time to time. Add the anti-chlorine as desired. I did this twice, and no problems with the fishes
koi pond plants not only look beautiful but can also serve to keep algae at bay. As a koi pond owner, you will probably also take pride in its appearance and upkeep, and if you have been searching for tips on the right kinds of plants for your koi pond, you have come to the right place! Discover which plants are safe to place in your pond, and how to introduce plants into a koi pond that has previously been plant-free. Here, you will also get some terrific tips about which plants to feature in your pond, and what you need to ensure your chosen plants will thrive.
Maintaining the quality of your koi pond
If you are contemplating introducing a koi pond to your garden, you must be aware that the one of the most essential elements of caring for your koi is maintaining the pH levels in the water. Koi require an alkaline environment, with pH levels of 7.5 to 8. Any reading below 7 is dangerous and the levels will need to be raised. You should check the pH levels regularly using a pH testing kit. It is also advisable to test the area around the pond and you can find the Best Soil pH Tester at Backtofarm.Com. Should you find the pH levels to be too low you can remedy this by taking bucket of pond water and dissolving 1 teaspoon of baking soda per 5 to 10 gallons of pond water. Add this solution to the pond. Once the levels are correct, you are ready to introduce plants to your pond.
Introducing plants to your koi pond
As you may already be aware koi are likely to attempt to eat ay plants they can reach, and so you need to be cunning in the way you introduce plants to the pond. One method is to grow plants on a plant shelf, away from the hungry mouths of koi, however these shelves may provide predators with a handy step which they will use to catch and eat the koi. An alternative is to place plants directly into, or onto the water.
There are three main types of water plants for ponds you can introduce to your koi pond: floating, submerged, and shallow-water marsh plants. An attractive plant you may consider is the floating Water Hyacinth which provides many benefits including a natural filtration system, removing excess nutrients from the water. A floating plant such as the Water Hyacinth also blocks out light meaning algae will be less likely to grow in your pond. Yet, there are some downsides to selecting a Water Hyacinth, as your koi may decide to nibble on this easily accessible plant.
This plant resides in the shallow-water marsh plant category an is an attractive addition to a koi pond border. As you may have guessed from the name, the Umbrella Palm is shaped like an umbrella with several long leaves protruding from an extended stalk. This plant can thrive in warmer climates, but will need to be taken indoors if colder weather ensues.
American Waterweed (Elodea)
This wonderful plant is completely submerged but for the white flowers it produces which lie at the surface of the pond. The Elodea can be a great provider of shelter for smaller koi, and is perfect for utilising any excess carbon dioxide in the water. You will need to keep an eye on this plant however, as it can grow excessively, and is dangerous if allowed to infiltrate public waterways.